Results: 100

methanthelinium an anticholinergic agent used as an adjunctive therapy in peptic ulcer
aclatonium
suxamethonium A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
spinosad combination of spinosyns A and D; isolated from Saccharopolyspora spinosa
rapacuronium a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with a rapid onset of action acts by competing for cholinergic receptors at the motor end plate
decamethonium
acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
propantheline A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
hyoscyamine The 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
clidinium a synthetic anticholinergic agent that has antispasmodic and antisecretory effect on the gastrointestinal tract
octatropine methylbromide minor descriptor (65-86); on line & INDEX MEDICUS search TROPANES (69-86); RN given refers to endo-isomer
isopropamide
oxyphencyclimine cholinergic blocking agent used as an adjunct in the treatment of peptic ulcer
oxyphenonium A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.
diphemanil
tridihexethyl synonym Pathilon refers to chloride; RN given refers to parent cpd; structure
cisatracurium
mivacurium An isoquinoline derivative that is used as a short-acting non-depolarizing agent.
atracurium A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
doxacurium according to Unlisted Drugs, BW-A938U is a bis-benzylisoquinolinium diester and a highly potent neuromuscular blocker
dimethyltubocurarinium from Chinese herb Cyclea hainanensis Mrr
rocuronium Rocuronium bromide is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with a rapid to intermediate onset depending on dose and intermediate duration. It acts by competing for cholinergic receptors at the motor end-plate. This action is antagonized by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine and edrophonium.
pipecuronium A piperazinyl androstane derivative which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS). It is used as a muscle relaxant during ANESTHESIA and surgical procedures.
pancuronium A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
atropine An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
vecuronium Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
tubocurarine A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
mepenzolate anticholinergic, antispasmodic agent; RN given refers to parent cpd; structure
trospium
pentolonium A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.
revefenacin Revefenacin is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, which is often referred to as an anticholinergic. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo models, prevention of methacholine- and acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstrictive effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. The bronchodilation following inhalation of revefenacin is predominantly a site-specific effect.
glycopyrronium bromide Glycopyrrolate is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, which is often referred to as an anticholinergic. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo studies, prevention of methacholine and acetylcholine induced bronchoconstrictive effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. The bronchodilation following inhalation of glycopyrrolate is predominantly a site-specific effect.
fesoterodine a muscarinic antagonist for treatment of overactive bladder
bethanechol A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
cevimeline Cevimeline is a cholinergic agonist which binds to muscarinic receptors. Muscarinic agonists in sufficient dosage can increase secretion of exocrine glands, such as salivary and sweat glands and increase tone of the smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts.
methscopolamine A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
hexocyclium
tolterodine An ANTIMUSCARINIC AGENT selective for the MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS of the BLADDER that is used in the treatment of URINARY INCONTINENCE and URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE.
dicycloverine A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. It has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms.
solifenacin A quinuclidine and tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative and selective M3 MUSCARINIC ANTAGONIST. It is used as a UROLOGIC AGENT in the treatment of URINARY INCONTINENCE.
trimetaphan A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
mecamylamine A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
nicotine Devices or delivery systems used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.
metixene
cycrimine
cyclopentolate A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
oxybutynin Oxybutynin acts as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at post-ganglionic muscarinic receptors, resulting in relaxation of bladder smooth muscle. Oxybutynin is a racemic (50:50) mixture of R- and S-isomers. Antimuscarinic activity resides predominantly in the R-isomer. The R-isomer of oxybutynin shows greater selectivity for the M1 and M3 muscarinic subtypes (predominant in bladder detrusor muscle and parotid gland) compared to the M2 subtype (predominant in cardiac tissue).
varenicline A benzazepine derivative that functions as an ALPHA4-BETA2 NICOTINIC RECEPTOR partial agonist. It is used for SMOKING CESSATION.
levamisole An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
imidafenacin
profenamine
procyclidine A muscarinic antagonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is used in the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders and in parkinsonism.
aclidinium bromide a long-acting, inhaled antimuscarinic; in phase I trial 8/2008
umeclidinium a long-acting antimuscarinic agent with similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5, in the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation
diphenidol shows anti-arrhythmic activity; RN given refers to unlabeled parent cpd
trihexyphenidyl One of the centrally acting MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS used for treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and drug-induced extrapyramidal movement disorders and as an antispasmodic.
tropicamide One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
gallamine A synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of TUBOCURARINE, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)
biperiden A muscarinic antagonist that has effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerotic, idiopathic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It has also been used to alleviate extrapyramidal symptoms induced by phenothiazine derivatives and reserpine.
darifenacin a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist with greater affinity for the M3 receptor than for the other known muscarinic receptors, M3 receptors are involved in contraction of human bladder and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, saliva production, and iris sphincter function
benzatropine A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
dexetimide A muscarinic antagonist that has been used to treat neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Benzetimide is the (-)-enantimorph of dexetimide.
ipratropium A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
tiotropium bromide A scopolamine derivative and CHOLINERGIC ANTAGONIST that functions as a BRONCHODILATOR AGENT. It is used in the treatment of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE.
scopolamine An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Its many uses include an anesthetic premedication, the treatment of URINARY INCONTINENCE and MOTION SICKNESS, an antispasmodic, and a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
methacholine A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
pilocarpine A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
pirenzepine An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
carbachol A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
xanomeline a cholinergic agonist; used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; structure given in first source
alcuronium A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to TUBOCURARINE. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant.
clozapine A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
tropisetron An indole derivative and 5-HT3 RECEPTOR antagonist that is used for the prevention of nausea and vomiting.
hexamethonium A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
imipramine The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
aceclidine cholinomimetic used to reduce intraocular pressure in glaucoma
chlorpromazine The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
thioridazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
sabcomeline selective for M1 receptors; RN refers to (R,S)-isomer
tacrine A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
cyproheptadine A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.
haloperidol A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
mianserin A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.
cytisine
olanzapine The mechanism of action of olanzapine, as with other drugs having efficacy in schizophrenia, is unknown. However, it has been proposed that this drug’s efficacy in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of dopamine and serotonin type 2 (5HT2) antagonism. The mechanism of action of olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder is unknown.
femoxetine serotonin uptake inhibitor; RN given refers to (3R-trans)-isomer
bromperidol bromine-substituted for chlorine in haloperidol; RN given refers to unlabeled parent cpd; structure
propiomazine
amoxapine The N-demethylated derivative of the antipsychotic agent LOXAPINE that works by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, or both; it also blocks dopamine receptors. Amoxapine is used for the treatment of depression.
cyclizine A histamine H1 antagonist given by mouth or parenterally for the control of postoperative and drug-induced vomiting and in motion sickness. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p935)
promethazine A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
aripiprazole A piperazine and quinolone derivative that is used primarily as an antipsychotic agent. It is a partial agonist of SEROTONIN RECEPTOR, 5-HT1A and DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS, where it also functions as a post-synaptic antagonist, and an antagonist of SEROTONIN RECEPTOR, 5-HT2A. It is used for the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA and BIPOLAR DISORDER, and as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of depression.
ziprasidone a benzisothiazoylpiperazine derivative; has combined dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonist activity; structurally related to tiospirone
ketotifen A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.
fluphenazine enanthate
pridinol antispasmodic & muscle relaxant; RN given refers to parent cpd; structure in Merck Index, 9th ed, #7539
mesoridazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic with effects similar to CHLORPROMAZINE.
promazine A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.
protriptyline Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.

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