Results: 53

acetylcysteine The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates. N-Acetylcystene (NAC) as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. The potential applications of NAC to facilitate recovery after traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and in treatment of cerebrovascular vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
cysteine A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
paracetamol Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
phenylephrine An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
caffeine A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
codeine An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
dextromethorphan Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
diphenhydramine A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
doxylamine Histamine H1 antagonist with pronounced sedative properties. It is used in allergies and as an antitussive, antiemetic, and hypnotic. Doxylamine has also been administered in veterinary applications and was formerly used in PARKINSONISM.
guaifenesin An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
hydrocodone Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
oxycodone A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
acetylsalicylic acid The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
butalbital management of butalbital withdrawal can be simplified by using a phenobarbital-loading protocol; RN given refers to parent cpd
chlorphenamine A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
tramadol A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
mepyramine A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.
triprolidine Histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic rhinitis; ASTHMA; and URTICARIA. It is a component of COUGH and COLD medicines. It may cause drowsiness.
dextropropoxyphene A narcotic analgesic structurally related to METHADONE. Only the dextro-isomer has an analgesic effect; the levo-isomer appears to exert an antitussive effect.
pheniramine One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.
pseudoephedrine A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.
magnesium salicylate
pentazocine The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
ibuprofen A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the treatment of RHEUMATISM and ARTHRITIS. Concerns that anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen may worsen COVID-19 circulated widely in the early months of the pandemic. FDA has stated that it is not aware of scientific evidence connecting the use of NSAIAs, such as ibuprofen, with worsening COVID-19 symptoms and will communicate publicly when more information is available.
ascorbic acid A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant. NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel states that there are insufficient data to recommend either for or against use of ascorbic acid for the treatment of COVID-19 in critically or noncritically ill patients.
trolnitrate synonym Angitrit refers to phosphate; structure #412; RN given refers to parent cpd
brompheniramine Histamine H1 antagonist used in treatment of allergies, rhinitis, and urticaria.
chlorzoxazone A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)
ephedrine A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
melatonin A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
pethidine A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
orphenadrine A muscarinic antagonist used to treat drug-induced parkinsonism and to relieve pain from muscle spasm.
phenylpropanolamine A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
phenobarbital A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
salicylic acid A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
pyridoxine The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
calcium gluconate The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
phenazone An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
octodrine 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) analog
ethanol A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
naproxen An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
propacetamol prodrug for acetaminophen

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