Results: 100

guanidine A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
raltegravir Raltegravir inhibits the catalytic activity of HIV-1 integrase, an HIV-1 encoded enzyme that is required for viral replication. Inhibition of integrase prevents the covalent insertion, or integration, of unintegrated linear HIV-1 DNA into the host cell genome preventing the formation of the HIV-1 provirus. The provirus is required to direct the production of progeny virus, so inhibiting integration prevents propagation of the viral infection.
desflurane A fluorinated ether that is used as a volatile anesthetic for maintenance of general anesthesia.
enflurane An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
halothane A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
sevoflurane A non-explosive inhalation anesthetic used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It does not cause respiratory irritation and may also prevent PLATELET AGGREGATION.
isoflurane A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
potassium bitartrate
potassium canrenoate A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.
potassium hydrogencarbonate
potassium phosphate, monobasic
doxapram A central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)
potassium iodide An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
potassium phosphate, dibasic
amifampridine 4-Aminopyridine derivative that acts as a POTASSIUM CHANNEL blocker to increase release of ACETYLCHOLINE from nerve terminals. It is used in the treatment of CONGENITAL MYASTHENIC SYNDROMES.
fampridine One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS with secondary effect on calcium currents which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
potassium citrate A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
potassium nitrate
potassium phosphate used in dental materials and to treat hypophosphatemia; RN given refers to cpd with unspecified MF
potassium lactate
oteracil Antagonist of urate oxidase.
potassium gluconate
fimasartan an angiotensin II receptor antagonist
retigabine In vitro studies indicate that ezogabine enhances transmembrane potassium currents mediated by the KCNQ (Kv7.2 to 7.5) family of ion channels. By activating KCNQ channels, ezogabine is thought to stabilize the resting membrane potential and reduce brain excitability.
benzylpenicillin A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
clavulanic acid A beta-lactam antibiotic produced by the actinobacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
potassium chloride A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
pheneticillin pheneticillin (feneticillin) is an oral acid resistant penicillin analogous to penicillin V with a range of antimicrob activity similar to penicillin G
aminosalicylic acid An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.
menadiol sulfate
sotalol An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.
potassium perchlorate thyroid antagonist; structure
clorazepate A water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.
potassium acetate A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
vernakalant Vernakalant is an antiarrhythmic medicine that acts preferentially in the atria to prolong atrial refractoriness and to rate-dependently slow impulse conduction. These anti-fibrillatory actions on refractoriness and conduction are thought to suppress re-entry, and are potentiated in the atria during atrial fibrillation. The relative selectivity of vernakalant on atrial versus ventricular refractoriness is postulated to result from the block of currents that are expressed in the atria, but not in the ventricles, as well as the unique electrophysiologic condition of the fibrillating atria. However, blockade of cationic currents, including hERG channels and cardiac voltage-dependent sodium channels, which are present in the ventricles has been documented.
potassium permanganate Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
bismuth subcitrate contains tripotassium di-citratobismuthate used in gastric & duodenal ulcer therapy; do not confuse with colloidal bismuth subnitrate
patiromer calcium binds potassium ions in the gastrointestinal tract to lower serum potassium levels
chlorzoxazone A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)
amiodarone An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
dofetilide Dofetilide show Vaughan Williams Class III antiarrhythmic activity. The mechanism of action is blockade of the cardiac ion channel carrying the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, IKr. At concentrations covering several orders of magnitude, dofetilide blocks only IKr with no relevant block of the other repolarizing potassium currents (e.g., IKs, IK1). At clinically relevant concentrations, dofetilide has no effect on sodium channels (associated with Class I effect), adrenergic alpha-receptors, or adrenergic beta-receptors.
sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate
diclofenac A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
phenoxymethylpenicillin A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
losartan An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
glibenclamide An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
tolbutamide A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
nicotinic acid A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
minoxidil A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
diazoxide A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
nateglinide A phenylalanine and cyclohexane derivative that acts as a hypoglycemic agent by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas. It is used in the treatment of TYPE 2 DIABETES.
glibornuride was MH 1975-92 (see under SULFONYLUREA COMPOUNDS 1975-90); use SULFONYLUREA COMPOUNDS to search GLIBORNURIDE 1975-92; an oral, sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion
gliclazide An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.
pinacidil A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
sodium zirconium cyclosilicate Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate selectively binds potassium in exchange for hydrogen and sodium cations throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reduces the concentration of free potassium in the GI lumen. This lowers serum potassium levels by drawing potassium into the GI tract and increasing faecal potassium excretion to resolve hyperkalaemia.
spironolactone A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
dichlorphenamide A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
carbutamide A sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent with similar actions and uses to CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)
carbenicillin Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
gossypol A dimeric sesquiterpene found in cottonseed (GOSSYPIUM). The (-) isomer is active as a male contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS, MALE) whereas toxic symptoms are associated with the (+) isomer.
oxaprozin An oxazole-propionic acid derivative, cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is used in the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with of OSTEOARTHRITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and ARTHRITIS, JUVENILE.
acetohexamide A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent that is metabolized in the liver to 1-hydrohexamide.
acetylsalicylic acid The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
furazidin Nitrofuran derivative anti-infective agent used for urinary tract infections.
padeliporfin Padeliporfin is retained within the vascular system. When activated with 753 nm wavelength laser light, padeliporfin triggers a cascade of pathophysiological events resulting in focal necrosis within a few days. Activation within the illuminated tumour vasculature, generates oxygen radicals causing local hypoxia that induces the release of nitric oxide radicals. This results in transient arterial vasodilatation that triggers the release of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1. Rapid consumption of the NO radicals, by oxygen radicals, leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (e.g. peroxynitrite), in parallel to arterial constriction. In addition, impaired deformability is thought to enhance erythrocyte aggregability and formation of blood clots at the interface of the arterial supply (feeding arteries) and tumour microcirculation, results in occlusion of the tumour vasculature. This is enhanced by RNS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and initiation of self-propagated tumour cells necrosis through peroxidation of their membrane.
crilanomer copolymer of starch & acrylonitrile
eplerenone A spironolactone derivative and selective ALDOSTERONE RECEPTOR antagonist that is used in the management of HYPERTENSION and CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, post-MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
taurine A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
dichloroacetic acid A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
tolazamide A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE.
valsartan A tetrazole derivative and ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKER that is used to treat HYPERTENSION.
salicylic acid A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
lisinopril One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
glisoxepide oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion; minor descriptor (75-85); on-line & Index Medicus search SULFONYLUREA COMPOUNDS (75-85); RN given refers to parent cpd
sacubitril inhibits neprilysin (neutral endopeptidase; NEP) via LBQ657, the active metabolite and leads to increased levels of peptides that are degraded by neprilysin such as natriuretic peptides
leteprinim a neuroprotective agent that has been shown to improve memory; induces NGF-dependent nociceptive nerve sprouting
glipizide An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
mitiglinide a rapid and short-acting hypoglycemic agent; acts on sulfonylurea receptor closing KATP channels; considered one of the glinides-an imprecise grouping; structure given in first source
aliskiren Renin is secreted by the kidney in response to decreases in blood volume and renal perfusion. Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to form the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I (Ang I). Ang I is converted to the active octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) by ACE and non-ACE pathways. Ang II is a powerful vasoconstrictor and leads to the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and prejunctional nerve endings. It also promotes aldosterone secretion and sodium reabsorption. Together, these effects increase blood pressure. Ang II also inhibits renin release, thus providing a negative feedback to the system. This cycle, from renin through angiotensin to aldosterone and its associated negative feedback loop, is known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor, decreasing plasma renin activity (PRA) and inhibiting the conversion of angiotensinogen to Ang I. Whether aliskiren affects other RAAS components, e.g., ACE or non-ACE pathways, is not known.
aminobenzoic acid An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.
tretinoin An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
warfarin An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
chlorpropamide A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)
amoxicillin A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
sodium chloride A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
sodium fluoride A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
calcium chloride A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
magnesium chloride Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.
sodium acetate The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.

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