Results: 14

glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
dasiglucagon Dasiglucagon is a glucagon receptor agonist, which increases blood glucose concentration by activating hepatic glucagon receptors, thereby stimulating glycogen breakdown and release of glucose from the liver. Hepatic stores of glycogen are necessary for dasiglucagon to produce an antihypoglycemic effect.
linagliptin Linagliptin is an inhibitor of DPP-4, an enzyme that degrades the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Thus, linagliptin increases the concentrations of active incretin hormones, stimulating the release of insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and decreasing the levels of glucagon in the circulation. Both incretin hormones are involved in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. Incretin hormones are secreted at a low basal level throughout the day and levels rise immediately after meal intake. GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin biosynthesis and secretion from pancreatic beta cells in the presence of normal and elevated blood glucose levels. Furthermore, GLP-1 also reduces glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, resulting in a reduction in hepatic glucose output.
pramlintide Pramlintide is an analog of human amylin. Amylin is colocated with insulin in secretory granules and cosecreted with insulin by pancreatic beta cells in response to food intake. Amylin and insulin show similar fasting and postprandial patterns in healthy individuals. In patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there is reduced secretion from pancreatic beta cells of both insulin and amylin in response to food. Amylin affects the rate of postprandial glucose appearance through a variety of mechanisms, as determined by nonclinical studies. Amylin slows gastric emptying (i.e., the rate at which food is released from the stomach to the small intestine) without altering the overall absorption of nutrients. In addition, amylin suppresses glucagon secretion (not normalized by insulin alone), which leads to suppression of endogenous glucose output from the liver. Amylin also regulates food intake due to centrally-mediated modulation of appetite. In human studies, pramlintide, acting as an amylin analog, slows gastric emptying, reduces the postprandial rise in plasma glucagon, and modulates satiety leading to decreased caloric intake.
semaglutide Semaglutide is a GLP-1 analogue with 94% sequence homology to human GLP-1. Semaglutide acts as a GLP-1 receptor agonist that selectively binds to and activates the GLP-1 receptor, the target for native GLP-1. GLP-1 is a physiological hormone that has multiple actions on glucose, mediated by the GLP-1 receptors. The principal mechanism of protraction resulting in the long half-life of semaglutide is albumin binding, which results in decreased renal clearance and protection from metabolic degradation. Furthermore, semaglutide is stabilized against degradation by the DPP-4 enzyme. Semaglutide reduces blood glucose through a mechanism where it stimulates insulin secretion and lowers glucagon secretion, both in a glucose-dependent manner. Thus, when blood glucose is high, insulin secretion is stimulated and glucagon secretion is inhibited. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering also involves a minor delay in gastric emptying in the early postprandial phase.
exenatide A synthetic form of exendin-4, a 39-amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the Gila monster lizard (Heloderma suspectum). Exenatide increases CYCLIC AMP levels in pancreatic acinar cells and acts as a GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 RECEPTOR (GLP-1) agonist and incretin mimetic, enhancing insulin secretion in response to increased glucose levels; it also suppresses inappropriate glucagon secretion and slows gastric emptying. It is used an anti-diabetic and anti-obesity agent.
liraglutide An analog of GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 1 and agonist of the GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 1 RECEPTOR that is used as a HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT and supplemental therapy in the treatment of DIABETES MELLITUS by patients who do not respond to METFORMIN.
lixisenatide A synthetic GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 RECEPTOR (GLP-1) agonist that binds GLP-1 receptor that is used to control blood sugar levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES; amino acid sequence is H-HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPSK KKKKK-NH2 (ZP10A).
sitagliptin A pyrazine-derived DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV INHIBITOR and HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT that increases the levels of the INCRETIN hormones GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). It is used in the treatment of TYPE 2 DIABETES.
teduglutide an analogue of human glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) preserves mucosal integrity by promoting repair and normal growth of the intestine through an increase of villus height and crypt depth
evogliptin Evogliptin is an orally bioavailable, selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. DPP-4 inhibitors control glucose levels by preventing the breakdown of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which stimulate insulin secretion in response to the increased levels of glucose in the period following meals.
dulaglutide a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; GLP-1 immunoglobulin G (IgG4) Fc fusion protein with extended activity
somatostatin A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
albiglutide A long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, with antihyperglycemic activity. Albiglutide is composed of a GLP-1 (7-36) dimer fused to recombinant human albumin. Upon subcutaneous administration, this agent has a half-life of 4-7 days and resists degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).

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