Results: 32

flumazenil A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.
remimazolam Remimazolam is a benzodiazepine and it binds to brain benzodiazepine sites (gamma amino butyric acid type A [GABAA] receptors), while its carboxylic acid metabolite (CNS7054) has a 300 times lower affinity for the receptor. Remimazolam, like other benzodiazepines, did not show clear selectivity between subtypes of the GABAA receptor.
ethosuximide An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
felbamate A PEGylated phenylcarbamate derivative that acts as an antagonist of NMDA RECEPTORS. It is used as an anticonvulsant, primarily for the treatment of SEIZURES in severe refractory EPILEPSY.
trolnitrate synonym Angitrit refers to phosphate; structure #412; RN given refers to parent cpd
bupropion A propiophenone-derived antidepressant and antismoking agent that inhibits the uptake of DOPAMINE.
sodium phosphate, monobasic
tramadol A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
iomazenil (123I) potential benzodiazepine receptor imaging tracer for SPECT; structure given in first source; RN given refers to 123I-labeled cpd; RN for unlabeled cpd not avail 10/90
alpidem Alpidem shows anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties which appear to be elicited both with a direct mechanism through the interaction with central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) and with an indirect mechanism by the interaction with peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) as well as the stimulation of pregnenolone formation. Alpidem was briefly marketed for the treatment of anxiety, but was withdrawn because of liver toxicity.
flurazepam A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.
gabapentin The mechanism by which gabapentin exerts its analgesic action is unknown, but in animal models of analgesia, gabapentin prevents allodynia (pain-related behavior in response to a normally innocuous stimulus) and hyperalgesia (exaggerated response to painful stimuli). In particular, gabapentin prevents pain-related responses in several models of neuropathic pain in rats or mice (e.g., spinal nerve ligation models, streptozocin-induced diabetes model, spinal cord injury model, acute herpes zoster infection model). Gabapentin also decreases pain-related responses after peripheral inflammation (carrageenan footpad test, late phase of formalin test). Gabapentin did not alter immediate pain-related behaviors (rat tail flick test, formalin footpad acute phase, acetic acid abdominal constriction test, footpad heat irradiation test). The mechanism by which gabapentin exerts its anticonvulsant action is unknown, but in animal test systems designed to detect anticonvulsant activity, gabapentin prevents seizures as do other marketed anticonvulsants. Gabapentin exhibits antiseizure activity in mice and rats in both the maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole seizure models and other preclinical models (e.g., strains with genetic epilepsy, etc.). Gabapentin is structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) but it does not modify GABAA or GABAB radioligand binding, it is not converted metabolically into GABA or a GABA agonist, and it is not an inhibitor of GABA uptake or degradation. Gabapentin was tested in radioligand binding assays at concentrations up to 100 uM and did not exhibit affinity for a number of other common receptor sites, including benzodiazepine, glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), quisqualate, kainate, strychnine-insensitive or strychnine-sensitive glycine, alpha 1, alpha 2, or beta adrenergic, adenosine A1 or A2, cholinergic muscarinic or nicotinic, dopamine D1 or D2, histamine H1, serotonin S1 or S2, opiate mu, delta or kappa, cannabinoid 1, voltage-sensitive calcium channel sites labeled with nitrendipine or diltiazem, or at voltage-sensitive sodium channel sites labeled with batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate. Furthermore, gabapentin did not alter the cellular uptake of dopamine, noradrenaline, or serotonin. In vitro studies with radiolabeled gabapentin have revealed a gabapentin binding site in areas of rat brain including neocortex and hippocampus. A high-affinity binding protein in animal brain tissue has been identified as an auxiliary subunit of voltage-activated calcium channels.
bromazepam One of the BENZODIAZEPINES that is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
lorazepam A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.
meprobamate A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
oxazepam A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
prazepam A benzodiazepine that is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
temazepam A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
triazolam A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.
medazepam A benzodiazepine derivative used in the treatment of anxiety. It has sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. One of its metabolites is DIAZEPAM and one of its excretion products is OXAZEPAM.
captodiame Captodiamine represents an interesting strategy for achieving benzodiazepine substitution with a low risk of dependence or impairment of cognitive function
flutoprazepam Flunitrazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine with general properties similar to diazepam.
levetiracetam The precise mechanism(s) by which levetiracetam exerts its antiepileptic effect is unknown. The antiepileptic activity of levetiracetam was assessed in a number of animal models of epileptic seizures. Levetiracetam did not inhibit single seizures induced by maximal stimulation with electrical current or different chemoconvulsants and showed only minimal activity in submaximal stimulation and in threshold tests. Protection was observed, however, against secondarily generalized activity from focal seizures induced by pilocarpine and kainic acid, two chemoconvulsants that induce seizures that mimic some features of human complex partial seizures with secondary generalization. Levetiracetam also displayed inhibitory properties in the kindling model in rats, another model of human complex partial seizures, both during kindling development and in the fully kindled state. In vitro and in vivo recordings of epileptiform activity from the hippocampus have shown that levetiracetam inhibits burst firing without affecting normal neuronal excitability, suggesting that levetiracetam may selectively prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing and propagation of seizure activity. Levetiracetam at concentrations of up to 10 uM did not demonstrate binding affinity for a variety of known receptors, such as those associated with benzodiazepines, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), glycine, NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), re-uptake sites, and second messenger systems. Furthermore, in vitro studies have failed to find an effect of levetiracetam on neuronal voltage-gated sodium or T-type calcium currents and levetiracetam does not appear to directly facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission. However, in vitro studies have demonstrated that levetiracetam opposes the activity of negative modulators of GABA- and glycine-gated currents and partially inhibits N-type calcium currents in neuronal cells. A saturable and stereoselective neuronal binding site in rat brain tissue has been described for levetiracetam. Experimental data indicate that this binding site is the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle exocytosis. Although the molecular significance of levetiracetam binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is not understood, levetiracetam and related analogs showed a rank order of affinity for SV2A which correlated with the potency of their antiseizure activity in audiogenic seizure-prone mice. These findings suggest that the interaction of levetiracetam with the SV2A protein may contribute to the antiepileptic mechanism of action of the drug.
flunitrazepam A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.
clobazam A benzodiazepine derivative that is a long-acting GABA-A RECEPTOR agonist. It is used as an antiepileptic in the treatment of SEIZURES, including seizures associated with LENNOX-GASTAUT SYNDROME. It is also used as an anxiolytic, for the short-term treatment of acute ANXIETY.
chlormezanone A non-benzodiazepine that is used in the management of anxiety. It has been suggested for use in the treatment of muscle spasm.
nitrazepam A benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.
stiripentol In animal models, stiripentol antagonizes seizures induced by electric shock, pentetrazole and bicuculline. In rodent models, stiripentol appears to increase brain levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) - the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. This could occur by inhibition of synaptosomal uptake of GABA and/or inhibition of GABA transaminase. Stiripentol has also been shown to enhance GABAA receptor-mediated transmission in the immature rat hippocampus and increase the mean open-duration (but not the frequency) of GABAA receptor chloride channels by a barbiturate-like mechanism. Stiripentol potentiates the efficacy of other anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine, sodium valproate, phenytoin, phenobarbital and many benzodiazepines, as the result of pharmacokinetic interactions. The second effect of stiripentol is mainly based on metabolic inhibition of several isoenzymes, in particular CYP450 3A4 and 2C19, involved in the hepatic metabolism of other anti-epileptic medicines.
chlordiazepoxide An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
clorazepate A water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.
diazepam A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
estazolam A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant properties. It has been shown in some cases to be more potent than DIAZEPAM or NITRAZEPAM.

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