Results: 79

oxygen An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
selexipag an oral prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonist that is structurally distinct from prostacyclin, indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, selexipag is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterase 1 to yield its active metabolite, which is approximately 37-fold as potent as selexipag, selexipag and the active metabolite are selective for the IP receptor versus other prostanoid receptors (EP1-4, DP, FP and TP)
entrectinib Entrectinib is an inhibitor of the tropomyosin receptor tyrosine kinases (TRK) TRKA, TRKB, and TRKC (encoded by the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase [NTRK] genes NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3, respectively), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS1 (ROS1), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK).
macitentan an endothelin receptor antagonist that prevents the binding of ET-1 to both ETA and ETB receptors, macitentan displays high affinity and sustained occupancy of the ET receptors in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells
nitrogen An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
elosulfase alfa BMN-100 and BMN 110 are recombinant GALNS; RefSeq NM_000512
riociguat guanylate cyclase stimulator
beraprost stable prostacyclin analog; structure given in first source
nitric oxide A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP. It has been shown to have in vitro activity against severe acute res-piratory syndrome corona-virus (SARS-CoV-1) but evidence supporting the use of inhaled nitric oxide in COVID-19 patients is currently limited.
pamidronic acid An aminobisphosphonate that inhibits BONE RESORPTION and is used for the treatment of osteolytic lesions, bone pain, and severe HYPERCALCEMIA associated with malignancies.
trisodium citrate dihydrate
remdesivir Remdesivir is an investigational nucleotide analog with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Remdesivir has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo activity in animal models against the viral pathogens MERS and SARS, which are also coronaviruses and are structurally similar to COVID-19. The limited preclinical data on remdesivir in MERS and SARS indicate that remdesivir may have potential activity against COVID-19. The only direct-acting antiviral (DAA) currently approved by FDA for the treatment of COVID-19 in certain populations.
alglucosidase alfa Defects in the gene for this protein cause glycogen storage disease II, also known as Pompe disease, RefSeq NM_000152
methylprednisolone A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
pentobarbital A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
phenylephrine An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
hydrocortisone succinate
methylprednisolone succinate A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.
ambrisentan an endothelin receptor antagonist that is selective for the endothelin type-A (ETA) receptor
palivizumab A humanized monoclonal antibody and ANTIVIRAL AGENT that is used to prevent RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS in high risk pediatric patients.
magnesium hydroxide An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.
eicosapentaenoic acid Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
pirfenidone pyridone, indicated for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
sugammadex Sugammadex is a modified gamma cyclodextrin which is a Selective Relaxant Binding Agent. It forms a complex with the neuromuscular blocking agents rocuronium or vecuronium in plasma and thereby reduces the amount of neuromuscular blocking agent available to bind to nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction. This results in the reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium or vecuronium.
treprostinil
dexchlorpheniramine
laronidase Laronidase is a polymorphic variant of the human enzyme alpha‑l‑iduronidase that is produced by recombinant DNA technology which catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal alpha-l-iduronic acid residues of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. Reduced or absent alpha-L-iduronidase activity results in the accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) substrates, dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate, throughout the body and leads to widespread cellular, tissue, and organ dysfunction.
thiopental A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
casirivimab Casirivimab with imdevimab to be administered together is authorized for use under an EUA for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg) with positive results of direct SARS-CoV-2 viral testing, and who are at high risk for progressing to severe COVID-19 and/or hospitalization. Casirivimab(IgG1kappa) and imdevimab (IgG1lambda) are two recombinant human mAbs which are unmodified in the Fc regions. Casirivimab and imdevimab bind to non-overlapping epitopes of the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Casirivimab, imdevimab and casirivimab and imdevimab together blocked RBD binding to the human ACE2 receptor with IC50 values of 56.4 pM, 165 pM and 81.8 pM, respectively.
ferumoxytol Ferumoxytol consists of a superparamagnetic iron oxide that is coated with a carbohydrate shell, which helps to isolate the bioactive iron from plasma components until the iron-carbohydrate complex enters the reticuloendothelial system macrophages of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The iron is released from the iron-carbohydrate complex within vesicles in the macrophages. Iron then either enters the intracellular storage iron pool (e.g., ferritin) or is transferred to plasma transferrin for transport to erythroid precursor cells for incorporation into hemoglobin.
tadalafil A carboline derivative and PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5 INHIBITOR that is used primarily to treat ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION; BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA and PRIMARY PULMONARY HYPERTENSION.
imdevimab Imdevimab with casirivimab to be administered together is authorized for use under an EUA for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg) with positive results of direct SARS-CoV-2 viral testing, and who are at high risk for progressing to severe COVID-19 and/or hospitalization. Casirivimab(IgG1kappa) and imdevimab (IgG1lambda) are two recombinant human mAbs which are unmodified in the Fc regions. Casirivimab and imdevimab bind to non-overlapping epitopes of the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Casirivimab, imdevimab and casirivimab and imdevimab together blocked RBD binding to the human ACE2 receptor with IC50 values of 56.4 pM, 165 pM and 81.8 pM, respectively.
bamlanivimab Effective April 16, 2021, FDA revoked the EUA for use of bamlanivimab alone (monotherapy) for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. The EUA for use of bamlanivimab in a combined regimen with etesevimab remains unchanged. Bamlanivimab is a recombinant neutralizing human IgG1kappa monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and is unmodified in the Fc region. Bamlanivimab binds to spike protein and blocks spike protein attachment to the human ACE2 receptor with an IC50 value of 0.025 μg/mL.
etesevimab FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for etesevimab and bamlanivimab on February 9, 2021 that permits combined use of the drugs for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. The EUA of bamlanivimab ALONE was revoked by FDA but the use of bamlanivimab in a combined regimen with etesevimab remains unchanged. Etesevimab is a recombinant neutralizing human IgG1kappa mAb to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, with amino acid substitutions in the Fc region (L234A, L235A) to reduce effector function. Etesevimab binds the spike protein and blocks spike protein attachment to the human ACE2 receptor with an IC50value of 0.32 nM (0.046 μg/mL). Bamlanivimab and etesevimab bind to different but overlapping epitopes in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein. Using both antibodies together is expected to reduce the risk of viral resistance.
sildenafil A PHOSPHODIESTERASE TYPE-5 INHIBITOR; VASODILATOR AGENT and UROLOGICAL AGENT that is used in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION and PRIMARY PULMONARY HYPERTENSION.
sevoflurane A non-explosive inhalation anesthetic used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It does not cause respiratory irritation and may also prevent PLATELET AGGREGATION.
atracurium A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
rocuronium Rocuronium bromide is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with a rapid to intermediate onset depending on dose and intermediate duration. It acts by competing for cholinergic receptors at the motor end-plate. This action is antagonized by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine and edrophonium.
caffeine A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
chlorothiazide A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)
propofol An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
dextromethorphan Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
diphenhydramine A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
doxylamine Histamine H1 antagonist with pronounced sedative properties. It is used in allergies and as an antitussive, antiemetic, and hypnotic. Doxylamine has also been administered in veterinary applications and was formerly used in PARKINSONISM.
guaifenesin An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
iloprost An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
ipratropium A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
carbon dioxide A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
glycerol A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, or sweetening agent.
helium A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics.
sodium monofluorophosphate inhibits Phosphorylas phosphatase irreversibly; RN given refers to parent cpd
oxybenzone
octisalate
octocrylene ingredient in sunscreens and cosmetics
salicylic acid A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
avobenzone causes allergic or photoallergic contact dermatitis; structure given in first source
adenosine A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
nicotinamide An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
titanium dioxide used medically as protectant against externally caused irritation & sunlight; high concentrations of dust may cause irritation to respiratory tract; RN given refers to titanium oxide (TiO2); structure
betaine A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
octinoxate a UV filter compound
dimethicone A poly(dimethylsiloxane) which is a polymer of 200-350 units of dimethylsiloxane, along with added silica gel. It is used as an antiflatulent, surfactant, and ointment base.
zinc oxide A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
ensulizole sunscreening agent
belzutifan Belzutifan is an inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF-2alpha), with potential antineoplastic activity. HIF-2alpha is a transcription factor that plays a role in oxygen sensing by regulating genes that promote adaptation to hypoxia. Under normal oxygen levels, HIF-2alpha is targeted for ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation by VHL protein. Lack of functional VHL protein results in stabilization and accumulation of HIF-2alpha. Upon stabilization, HIF-2alpha translocates into the nucleus and interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor 1 beta (HIF-1beta) to form a transcriptional complex that induces expression of downstream genes, including genes associated with cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Belzutifan binds to HIF-2alpha, and in conditions of hypoxia or impairment of VHL protein function, belzutifan blocks the HIF-2alpha-HIF-1beta interaction, leading to reduced transcription and expression of HIF-2alpha target genes. In vivo, belzutifan demonstrated anti-tumor activity in mouse xenograft models of renal cell carcinoma.
dexamethasone An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid. The NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel recommends the use of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 who are receiving mechanical ventilation or in those who require supplemental oxygen but are not on me-chanical ventilation. It is not recommended the use of dexamethasone or other corticosteroids in nonhospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 or in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who do not require supplemental oxygen.
baricitinib Baricitinib is a selective and reversible inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK)1 and JAK2. Janus kinases (JAKs) are enzymes that transduce intracellular signals from cell surface receptors for a number of cytokines and growth factors involved in haematopoiesis, inflammation and immune function. Within the intracellular signalling pathway, JAKs phosphorylate and activate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), which activate gene expression within the cell. Baricitinib modulates these signalling pathways by partially inhibiting JAK1 and JAK2 enzymatic activity, thereby reducing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs. FDA issued an Emergency use authorization (EUA) on November 19, 2020 that permits use of baricitinib in combination with remdesivir for treatment of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in hospitalized patients ≥2 years of age requiring supplemental oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
almitrine A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
padeliporfin Padeliporfin is retained within the vascular system. When activated with 753 nm wavelength laser light, padeliporfin triggers a cascade of pathophysiological events resulting in focal necrosis within a few days. Activation within the illuminated tumour vasculature, generates oxygen radicals causing local hypoxia that induces the release of nitric oxide radicals. This results in transient arterial vasodilatation that triggers the release of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1. Rapid consumption of the NO radicals, by oxygen radicals, leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (e.g. peroxynitrite), in parallel to arterial constriction. In addition, impaired deformability is thought to enhance erythrocyte aggregability and formation of blood clots at the interface of the arterial supply (feeding arteries) and tumour microcirculation, results in occlusion of the tumour vasculature. This is enhanced by RNS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and initiation of self-propagated tumour cells necrosis through peroxidation of their membrane.
roxadustat Roxadustat is a first-in-class orally administered inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolylhydroxylase that corrects anemia by activating a response that occurs naturally when the body responds to reduced oxygen levels in the blood. The response activated by roxadustat involves the regulation of multiple, complementary processes to promote erythropoiesis and increase the blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity.
posatirelin stimulates oxygen consumption
nizofenone Nizofenone is a neuroprotective drug which protects neurons from death following cerebral anoxia (interruption of oxygen supply to the brain). It might thus be useful in the treatment of acute neurological conditions such as stroke.
molsidomine A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
enoximone A selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor with vasodilating and positive inotropic activity that does not cause changes in myocardial oxygen consumption. It is used in patients with CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.
rebamipide Rebamipide is a mucosal protective agent and is postulated to increase gastric blood flow, prostaglandin biosynthesis and decrease free oxygen radicals.
voxelotor Voxelotor is a hemoglobin S (HbS) polymerization inhibitor that binds to HbS with a 1:1 stoichiometry and exhibits preferential partitioning to red blood cells (RBCs). By increasing the affinity of Hb for oxygen, voxelotor demonstrates dose-dependent inhibition of HbS polymerization. Nonclinical studies suggest that voxelotor may inhibit RBC sickling, improve RBC deformability, and reduce whole blood viscosity.
acetylcysteine The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates. N-Acetylcystene (NAC) as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. The potential applications of NAC to facilitate recovery after traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and in treatment of cerebrovascular vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
iron A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
nitrous oxide Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.

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