Drug results: 75

nicotine Devices or delivery systems used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.
tocopheryl nicotinate
etofylline nicotinate
methyl nicotinate erythema provoked is basis of a methylnicotinate test of anti-inflammatories
bupropion A propiophenone-derived antidepressant and antismoking agent that inhibits the uptake of DOPAMINE.
levamisole An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
inositol nicotinate
xantinol A vasodilator used in peripheral vascular disorders and insufficiency. It may cause gastric discomfort and hypotension.
thurfyl nicotinate
benzyl nicotinate
aluminium nicotinate
nicotinic acid A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
niceritrol An ester of nicotinic acid that lowers cholesterol and triglycerides in total plasma and in the VLD- and LD-lipoprotein fractions.
nikethamide A central nervous system stimulant. It was formerly used in the treatment of barbiturate overdose but is now considered to be of no value for such purposes and may be dangerous. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1229)
cefuroxime axetil
nicotinyl methylamide
spinosad combination of spinosyns A and D; isolated from Saccharopolyspora spinosa
rapacuronium a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with a rapid onset of action acts by competing for cholinergic receptors at the motor end plate
oxiniacic acid
suxamethonium A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Miochol-E (acetylcholine chloride intraocular solution) is used to obtain miosis of the iris in seconds after delivery of the lens in cataract surgery, in penetrating keratoplasty, iridectomy and other anterior segment surgery where rapid miosis may be required.
phenylbutazone A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.
aminophenazone A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.
cytisine RN given refers to (R)-isomer; structure
oxyphenbutazone A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)
atropine An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
flufenamic acid An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)
sulfinpyrazone A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
capsaicin An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
benzoic acid A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
tubocurarine A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
mefenamic acid A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase.
indomethacin A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits CYCLOOXYGENASE, which is necessary for the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS and other AUTACOIDS. It also inhibits the motility of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. Additional data needed to determine whether in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 corresponds with clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19.
phenazone An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
acetylsalicylic acid The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
acetanilide a phenylacetamide; use ACETANILIDES for the plural group meaning of the singular term
imidacloprid Systemic contact insecticide exhibiting low mammalian toxicity. This neonicotinoid insecticide acts as an antagonist by binding to postsynaptic nicotinic receptors in the insect central nervous system
trimetaphan A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
salicylic acid A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
clonidine An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
nicofuranose derivative of nicotinic acid that produces fewer side effects than pure nicotinic acid; used in peripheral vascular disease; also proposed as anticholesteremic; minor descriptor (75-84); on-line search NIACIN/AA (75-84); Index Medicus search NIACIN/AA (83-84), NICOTINIC ACIDS (75-82)
varenicline A benzazepine derivative that functions as an ALPHA4-BETA2 NICOTINIC RECEPTOR partial agonist. It is used for SMOKING CESSATION.
nicotinyl alcohol Alcohol analog of NICOTINIC ACID which is a direct-acting peripheral vasodilator that causes flushing and may decrease blood pressure. It is used in vasospasm and threatened GANGRENE.
propantheline A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
cotinine The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
pancuronium A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
pilocarpine A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
sugammadex Sugammadex is a modified gamma cyclodextrin which is a Selective Relaxant Binding Agent. It forms a complex with the neuromuscular blocking agents rocuronium or vecuronium in plasma and thereby reduces the amount of neuromuscular blocking agent available to bind to nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction. This results in the reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium or vecuronium.
gabapentin The mechanism by which gabapentin exerts its analgesic action is unknown, but in animal models of analgesia, gabapentin prevents allodynia (pain-related behavior in response to a normally innocuous stimulus) and hyperalgesia (exaggerated response to painful stimuli). In particular, gabapentin prevents pain-related responses in several models of neuropathic pain in rats or mice (e.g., spinal nerve ligation models, streptozocin-induced diabetes model, spinal cord injury model, acute herpes zoster infection model). Gabapentin also decreases pain-related responses after peripheral inflammation (carrageenan footpad test, late phase of formalin test). Gabapentin did not alter immediate pain-related behaviors (rat tail flick test, formalin footpad acute phase, acetic acid abdominal constriction test, footpad heat irradiation test). The mechanism by which gabapentin exerts its anticonvulsant action is unknown, but in animal test systems designed to detect anticonvulsant activity, gabapentin prevents seizures as do other marketed anticonvulsants. Gabapentin exhibits antiseizure activity in mice and rats in both the maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole seizure models and other preclinical models (e.g., strains with genetic epilepsy, etc.). Gabapentin is structurally related to the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) but it does not modify GABAA or GABAB radioligand binding, it is not converted metabolically into GABA or a GABA agonist, and it is not an inhibitor of GABA uptake or degradation. Gabapentin was tested in radioligand binding assays at concentrations up to 100 uM and did not exhibit affinity for a number of other common receptor sites, including benzodiazepine, glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), quisqualate, kainate, strychnine-insensitive or strychnine-sensitive glycine, alpha 1, alpha 2, or beta adrenergic, adenosine A1 or A2, cholinergic muscarinic or nicotinic, dopamine D1 or D2, histamine H1, serotonin S1 or S2, opiate mu, delta or kappa, cannabinoid 1, voltage-sensitive calcium channel sites labeled with nitrendipine or diltiazem, or at voltage-sensitive sodium channel sites labeled with batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate. Furthermore, gabapentin did not alter the cellular uptake of dopamine, noradrenaline, or serotonin. In vitro studies with radiolabeled gabapentin have revealed a gabapentin binding site in areas of rat brain including neocortex and hippocampus. A high-affinity binding protein in animal brain tissue has been identified as an auxiliary subunit of voltage-activated calcium channels.
bethanechol A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
carbachol A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
chlorisondamine A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
binifibrate two nicotinic & one clofibiric radical esterified by glycerol moiety
mecamylamine A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
bornaprine beneficial effect in Parkinsonism due to inhibition of muscarinic or nicotinic transmission
nizofenone Nizofenone is a neuroprotective drug which protects neurons from death following cerebral anoxia (interruption of oxygen supply to the brain). It might thus be useful in the treatment of acute neurological conditions such as stroke.
etofibrate analog of clofibrate with nicotinic acid substituted on the 2-carbon of the ethyl ester group; structure; RN given refers to parent cpd
hexamethonium A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
nicorandil A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
pempidine A nicotinic antagonist most commonly used as an experimental tool. It has been used as a ganglionic blocker in the treatment of hypertension but has largely been supplanted for that purpose by more specific drugs.
ciclonicate antilipolytic & myolytic; RN given refers to trans-isomer
pentolonium A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.
niclosamide An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48). Although suggested as a potential treatment for COVID-19 based on its broad antiviral activity, including in vitro activity against coronaviruses, there are no data to support the use of niclosamide in the treatment of COVID-19.
nicotinamide An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.

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