basiliximab Indications/Contra | FAERs-F | FAERs-M | Orange Bk | BioActivity |

Stem definitionDrug idCAS RN
chimeric origin 4940 179045-86-4

Description:

MoleculeDescription

Synonyms:

  • basiliximab
  • simulect
  • chRFT5
  • SDZ-CHI-621
Basiliximab functions as an IL-2 receptor antagonist by binding with high affinity to the alpha chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor complex and inhibiting IL-2 binding. Basiliximab is specifically targeted against IL-2Ralpha, which is selectively expressed on the surface of activated T-lymphocytes. This specific high affinity binding of basiliximab to IL-2Ralpha competitively inhibits IL-2-mediated activation of lymphocytes, a critical pathway in the cellular immune response involved in allograft rejection.
  • Molecular weight:
  • Formula:
  • CLOGP:
  • LIPINSKI: None
  • HAC: None
  • HDO: None
  • TPSA:
  • ALOGS:
  • ROTB: None

Drug dosage:

DoseUnitRoute
40 mg P

ADMET properties:

None

Approvals:

DateAgencyCompanyOrphan
Oct. 9, 1998 EMA
May 12, 1998 FDA NOVARTIS

FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (Female)

MedDRA adverse event termLikelihood ratioLikelihood ratio thresholdPatients taking drug having adverse eventPatients taking drug not having adverse eventPatients not taking drug having adverse eventPatients not taking drug not having adverse event
Kidney transplant rejection 724.44 28.27 166 8769 3952 46673175
Cytomegalovirus infection 587.94 28.27 193 8742 17951 46659176
Transplant rejection 435.08 28.27 132 8803 9464 46667663
Complications of transplanted kidney 359.30 28.27 84 8851 2179 46674948
Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy 337.94 28.27 74 8861 1416 46675711
Thrombotic microangiopathy 271.26 28.27 89 8846 8217 46668910
Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder 187.34 28.27 56 8879 3800 46673327
Cytomegalovirus viraemia 174.91 28.27 55 8880 4423 46672704
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome 172.21 28.27 75 8860 15066 46662061
Delayed graft function 153.63 28.27 36 8899 941 46676186
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome 151.02 28.27 104 8831 51606 46625521
Blood creatinine increased 143.62 28.27 118 8817 76285 46600842
Liver transplant rejection 126.57 28.27 33 8902 1350 46675777
Immunosuppressant drug level increased 118.61 28.27 38 8897 3244 46673883
Hyperammonaemia 116.45 28.27 41 8894 4675 46672452
BK virus infection 107.13 28.27 34 8901 2815 46674312
Transplant dysfunction 101.63 28.27 37 8898 4645 46672482
Nephropathy toxic 98.20 28.27 41 8894 7413 46669714
Aspergillus infection 97.89 28.27 40 8895 6850 46670277
Transplant failure 96.09 28.27 26 8909 1228 46675899
Renal impairment 92.39 28.27 91 8844 74281 46602846
Product use in unapproved indication 91.48 28.27 99 8836 90174 46586953
Renal tubular necrosis 89.83 28.27 43 8892 10716 46666411
Fatigue 87.73 28.27 8 8927 608689 46068438
Escherichia infection 83.58 28.27 41 8894 10776 46666351
Renal transplant failure 81.47 28.27 20 8915 639 46676488
Mucormycosis 80.61 28.27 26 8909 2266 46674861
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 79.37 28.27 23 8912 1398 46675729
Mycoplasma infection 79.12 28.27 18 8917 411 46676716
Herpes simplex 76.33 28.27 34 8901 7189 46669938
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome 74.28 28.27 25 8910 2489 46674638
Cerebral aspergillosis 71.51 28.27 16 8919 338 46676789
Leukopenia 71.04 28.27 76 8859 68267 46608860
Anuria 67.08 28.27 36 8899 11395 46665732
Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome 66.40 28.27 16 8919 472 46676655
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 66.12 28.27 29 8906 5909 46671218
Microsporidia infection 65.96 28.27 14 8921 229 46676898
Pseudomonas infection 63.69 28.27 33 8902 9725 46667402
Chronic allograft nephropathy 61.65 28.27 16 8919 642 46676485
Enterococcal infection 61.61 28.27 29 8906 6958 46670169
Complications of transplanted lung 60.50 28.27 13 8922 226 46676901
Klebsiella infection 59.81 28.27 28 8907 6634 46670493
Lymphocele 57.82 28.27 16 8919 822 46676305
Ureteric stenosis 57.61 28.27 15 8920 610 46676517
Ureaplasma infection 57.04 28.27 14 8921 447 46676680
Pathogen resistance 52.96 28.27 25 8910 6035 46671092
Parvovirus B19 infection 50.51 28.27 12 8923 333 46676794
Respiratory failure 49.75 28.27 75 8860 94741 46582386
Human herpesvirus 6 infection 48.23 28.27 18 8917 2421 46674706
Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 47.92 28.27 25 8910 7471 46669656
Glomerulonephritis 47.88 28.27 16 8919 1557 46675570
Pain 47.74 28.27 16 8919 476932 46200195
Epstein-Barr virus infection 47.33 28.27 24 8911 6760 46670367
Arthralgia 46.91 28.27 7 8928 364596 46312531
Epstein-Barr viraemia 45.96 28.27 13 8922 724 46676403
Kidney fibrosis 45.40 28.27 15 8920 1410 46675717
Pericarditis constrictive 45.25 28.27 11 8924 337 46676790
Intestine transplant rejection 45.08 28.27 8 8927 47 46677080
Graft loss 44.09 28.27 11 8924 376 46676751
Passenger lymphocyte syndrome 44.00 28.27 8 8927 55 46677072
Polyomavirus viraemia 43.92 28.27 11 8924 382 46676745
Strongyloidiasis 43.90 28.27 13 8922 852 46676275
Diabetic macroangiopathy 43.26 28.27 9 8926 133 46676994
Urinary fistula 43.23 28.27 7 8928 21 46677106
Acid base balance abnormal 42.71 28.27 10 8925 260 46676867
Incision site pain 41.21 28.27 13 8922 1054 46676073
Human herpesvirus 8 infection 40.23 28.27 9 8926 190 46676937
Graft versus host disease 39.35 28.27 21 8914 6567 46670560
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 39.30 28.27 33 8902 21889 46655238
Urine output decreased 38.80 28.27 25 8910 11072 46666055
Ureteral necrosis 37.56 28.27 7 8928 56 46677071
Viraemia 37.47 28.27 12 8923 1022 46676105
Biloma 37.13 28.27 7 8928 60 46677067
Dizziness 36.58 28.27 10 8925 340404 46336723
Haemolytic anaemia 36.46 28.27 23 8912 9819 46667308
Drug hypersensitivity 35.54 28.27 3 8932 243822 46433305
Shock 35.33 28.27 31 8904 21814 46655313
Capillaritis 34.99 28.27 7 8928 84 46677043
Aeromonas infection 34.99 28.27 7 8928 84 46677043
Graft complication 34.74 28.27 8 8927 193 46676934
Hepatitis B 34.63 28.27 16 8919 3677 46673450
Nausea 34.56 28.27 49 8886 687405 45989722
Dyspnoea 34.43 28.27 29 8906 515519 46161608
Rhodococcus infection 34.41 28.27 7 8928 92 46677035
Headache 34.35 28.27 25 8910 478327 46198800
Disseminated aspergillosis 34.30 28.27 6 8929 32 46677095
Shock haemorrhagic 34.08 28.27 21 8914 8603 46668524
Renal cortical necrosis 34.06 28.27 7 8928 97 46677030
Complications of transplanted liver 33.63 28.27 9 8926 407 46676720
Red blood cells urine positive 33.19 28.27 14 8921 2593 46674534
Infective aneurysm 33.17 28.27 9 8926 429 46676698
Drug resistance 32.91 28.27 27 8908 17341 46659786
Diabetes mellitus 32.72 28.27 44 8891 50021 46627106
Death 32.24 28.27 12 8923 335536 46341591
Extremity necrosis 32.10 28.27 12 8923 1621 46675506
JC virus infection 31.89 28.27 12 8923 1650 46675477
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 31.64 28.27 25 8910 15223 46661904
Smooth muscle cell neoplasm 30.94 28.27 9 8926 554 46676573
Herpes simplex viraemia 30.68 28.27 7 8928 162 46676965
Tubulointerstitial nephritis 30.16 28.27 24 8911 14764 46662363
Mycobacterium abscessus infection 30.00 28.27 9 8926 617 46676510
Post transplant distal limb syndrome 28.97 28.27 7 8928 209 46676918
Cytomegalovirus test positive 28.91 28.27 13 8922 2807 46674320
Neutrophil count increased 28.79 28.27 23 8912 14230 46662897
IgA nephropathy 28.76 28.27 8 8927 419 46676708
Trichodysplasia spinulosa 28.72 28.27 8 8927 421 46676706
Pyrexia 28.53 28.27 137 8798 348665 46328462
Ascites 28.37 28.27 35 8900 36549 46640578

FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (Male)

MedDRA adverse event termLikelihood ratioLikelihood ratio thresholdPatients taking drug having adverse eventPatients taking drug not having adverse eventPatients not taking drug having adverse eventPatients not taking drug not having adverse event
Kidney transplant rejection 875.20 19.29 266 14607 7243 29930362
Complications of transplanted kidney 489.09 19.29 148 14725 3953 29933652
Transplant rejection 472.09 19.29 176 14697 9030 29928575
Cytomegalovirus infection 440.62 19.29 221 14652 23453 29914152
Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy 367.13 19.29 112 14761 3073 29934532
Delayed graft function 233.91 19.29 69 14804 1680 29935925
Mucormycosis 196.45 19.29 80 14793 5188 29932417
Renal tubular necrosis 194.96 19.29 111 14762 15140 29922465
Blood creatinine increased 154.98 19.29 208 14665 91167 29846438
Graft versus host disease 149.18 19.29 81 14792 10069 29927536
Chronic allograft nephropathy 147.19 19.29 44 14829 1122 29936483
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 143.47 19.29 48 14825 1779 29935826
Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder 139.74 19.29 63 14810 5243 29932362
Incision site pain 139.12 19.29 48 14825 1956 29935649
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome 136.91 19.29 163 14710 63324 29874281
Strongyloidiasis 131.73 19.29 48 14825 2298 29935307
Lymphocyte count decreased 131.53 19.29 94 14779 18961 29918644
Immunosuppressant drug level increased 130.77 19.29 58 14815 4644 29932961
BK virus infection 125.13 19.29 55 14818 4309 29933296
Parvovirus B19 infection 110.21 19.29 30 14843 540 29937065
Tubulointerstitial nephritis 109.31 19.29 82 14791 17809 29919796
Nephropathy toxic 108.61 19.29 67 14806 10572 29927033
Product use in unapproved indication 102.93 19.29 153 14720 73540 29864065
Death 102.26 19.29 26 14847 357257 29580348
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 101.34 19.29 77 14796 17043 29920562
Cytomegalovirus viraemia 99.13 19.29 51 14822 5678 29931927
Thrombotic microangiopathy 97.61 19.29 58 14815 8552 29929053
Kidney fibrosis 96.40 19.29 37 14836 2048 29935557
Renal transplant failure 96.17 19.29 31 14842 1020 29936585
Transplant dysfunction 95.54 19.29 38 14835 2314 29935291
Neutrophil count increased 95.32 19.29 71 14802 15252 29922353
Liver transplant rejection 94.50 19.29 37 14836 2161 29935444
Epstein-Barr virus infection 94.32 19.29 52 14821 6654 29930951
Renal tubular atrophy 91.79 19.29 30 14843 1032 29936573
Fatigue 88.56 19.29 25 14848 320648 29616957
Complications of transplanted lung 87.13 19.29 20 14853 171 29937434
Red blood cells urine positive 79.45 19.29 30 14843 1587 29936018
Transplant failure 76.47 19.29 33 14840 2471 29935134
Fall 74.09 19.29 4 14869 181868 29755737
Ventricular remodelling 73.15 19.29 15 14858 70 29937535
Adenovirus infection 70.97 19.29 37 14836 4231 29933374
Cytomegalovirus test positive 70.52 19.29 35 14838 3610 29933995
Pneumonia cytomegaloviral 66.70 19.29 31 14842 2765 29934840
Dizziness 64.34 19.29 10 14863 194899 29742706
Protein urine present 64.34 19.29 36 14837 4739 29932866
Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 63.47 19.29 51 14822 12233 29925372
Graft loss 61.01 19.29 21 14852 849 29936756
Pseudomonas infection 59.50 19.29 46 14827 10436 29927169
Klebsiella infection 59.39 19.29 39 14834 6848 29930757
Candida infection 59.39 19.29 54 14819 15308 29922297
Viraemia 58.38 19.29 22 14851 1157 29936448
Leukopenia 57.05 19.29 101 14772 56058 29881547
Blood urea increased 56.98 19.29 74 14799 31307 29906298
Skin necrosis 56.61 19.29 33 14840 4694 29932911
JC virus infection 52.73 19.29 23 14850 1767 29935838
Renal impairment 50.69 19.29 122 14751 84062 29853543
Malacoplakia 50.68 19.29 12 14861 119 29937486
Nausea 50.61 19.29 44 14829 296913 29640692
Asthenia 49.62 19.29 24 14849 221266 29716339
Dyspnoea 49.22 19.29 56 14817 333239 29604366
Enterococcal infection 48.67 19.29 37 14836 8187 29929418
Urinary tract infection 46.78 19.29 109 14764 73550 29864055
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction 45.34 19.29 11 14862 122 29937483
Proteinuria 44.19 19.29 47 14826 16098 29921507
Hydronephrosis 43.67 19.29 36 14837 8947 29928658
Ureteric stenosis 43.51 19.29 18 14855 1213 29936392
Schistosomiasis 42.14 19.29 9 14864 53 29937552
Diabetes mellitus 42.12 19.29 75 14798 41790 29895815
Rash 41.22 19.29 22 14851 191867 29745738
Cytomegalovirus colitis 40.63 19.29 21 14852 2358 29935247
Urine output decreased 39.17 19.29 35 14838 9694 29927911
Intestine transplant rejection 39.07 19.29 8 14865 37 29937568
Respiratory failure 38.85 19.29 124 14749 100518 29837087
Glomerulosclerosis 38.45 19.29 14 14859 668 29936937
Hyperammonaemia 37.52 19.29 27 14846 5493 29932112
Enterobacter infection 37.50 19.29 19 14854 2047 29935558
Lymphocele 37.37 19.29 17 14856 1443 29936162
Fungal skin infection 37.36 19.29 20 14853 2412 29935193
Cryptococcosis 36.93 19.29 18 14855 1784 29935821
Pruritus 36.90 19.29 7 14866 118197 29819408
Renal adenoma 36.82 19.29 7 14866 20 29937585
Fungaemia 36.12 19.29 19 14854 2212 29935393
Pyelonephritis acute 35.95 19.29 17 14856 1576 29936029
Hepatitis E 35.56 19.29 17 14856 1615 29935990
Lymphopenia 35.46 19.29 38 14835 13125 29924480
Tongue necrosis 35.42 19.29 7 14866 26 29937579
Hepatitis A 35.39 19.29 12 14861 463 29937142
Pain 35.33 19.29 21 14852 172620 29764985
Urinary fistula 35.10 19.29 9 14864 127 29937478
Graft versus host disease in skin 34.17 19.29 21 14852 3286 29934319
Aspergillus infection 33.90 19.29 33 14840 10181 29927424
Glomerulonephritis 33.86 19.29 17 14856 1796 29935809
Renal graft infection 33.59 19.29 10 14863 251 29937354
Arthralgia 33.13 19.29 13 14860 135778 29801827
Procedural pain 32.48 19.29 24 14849 5085 29932520
Oliguria 32.43 19.29 28 14845 7411 29930194
Nephrosclerosis 32.41 19.29 13 14860 809 29936796
Pancreas transplant rejection 32.41 19.29 9 14864 175 29937430
Argentine haemorrhagic fever 31.86 19.29 6 14867 16 29937589
Cytomegalovirus infection reactivation 31.79 19.29 16 14857 1699 29935906
American trypanosomiasis 31.19 19.29 9 14864 202 29937403
Capillaritis 30.75 19.29 8 14865 120 29937485
Renal artery stenosis 30.74 19.29 16 14857 1823 29935782
Cerebrovascular accident 30.62 19.29 3 14870 83474 29854131
Hyperuricaemia 30.56 19.29 27 14846 7367 29930238
IgA nephropathy 30.43 19.29 13 14860 949 29936656
Arteritis infective 30.01 19.29 6 14867 24 29937581
Transitional cell carcinoma metastatic 29.81 19.29 6 14867 25 29937580
Right ventricular diastolic collapse 29.79 19.29 7 14866 67 29937538
Renal vein thrombosis 29.60 19.29 8 14865 140 29937465
Pyrexia 29.59 19.29 248 14625 294241 29643364
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome 29.46 19.29 16 14857 1986 29935619
Myocardial infarction 29.07 19.29 13 14860 125612 29811993
Nephropathy 29.07 19.29 23 14850 5393 29932212
Sepsis 28.69 19.29 146 14727 146249 29791356
Headache 28.64 19.29 29 14844 182277 29755328
Renal arteriosclerosis 28.59 19.29 8 14865 160 29937445
Cardiac failure congestive 28.56 19.29 4 14869 84403 29853202
Hepatitis C 28.54 19.29 34 14839 13171 29924434
Adenoviral haemorrhagic cystitis 28.46 19.29 10 14863 430 29937175
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 28.01 19.29 44 14829 22127 29915478
Depression 26.88 19.29 6 14867 90431 29847174
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome 26.80 19.29 27 14846 8680 29928925
Splenic necrosis 26.60 19.29 6 14867 47 29937558
White blood cell count increased 26.58 19.29 60 14813 39613 29897992
Syncope 26.55 19.29 5 14868 84898 29852707
Graft complication 26.40 19.29 9 14864 353 29937252
Insomnia 26.17 19.29 7 14866 93329 29844276
Nocardiosis 26.04 19.29 18 14855 3437 29934168
Hepatitis cholestatic 25.32 19.29 25 14848 7847 29929758
Pyelonephritis 24.83 19.29 21 14852 5405 29932200
Systemic candida 24.68 19.29 16 14857 2748 29934857
Restrictive allograft syndrome 24.62 19.29 5 14868 22 29937583
Gait disturbance 24.26 19.29 4 14869 74773 29862832
Wound dehiscence 24.23 19.29 17 14856 3324 29934281
Renal tubular disorder 24.20 19.29 20 14853 4986 29932619
Graft thrombosis 23.92 19.29 8 14865 296 29937309
Blood glucose increased 23.88 19.29 76 14797 61454 29876151
Post procedural urine leak 23.85 19.29 7 14866 167 29937438
Optic discs blurred 23.72 19.29 6 14867 80 29937525
Splenic infection fungal 23.72 19.29 6 14867 80 29937525
Gonococcal infection 23.62 19.29 5 14868 28 29937577
Malaise 23.54 19.29 29 14844 166933 29770672
Pancytopenia 23.53 19.29 94 14779 84958 29852647
Intra-abdominal haemorrhage 23.40 19.29 14 14859 2088 29935517
Malignant neoplasm progression 23.15 19.29 4 14869 72283 29865322
Herpes simplex hepatitis 23.00 19.29 6 14867 91 29937514
Ureaplasma infection 22.99 19.29 7 14866 190 29937415
Cytomegalovirus gastritis 22.72 19.29 7 14866 198 29937407
Cytomegalovirus gastroenteritis 22.42 19.29 7 14866 207 29937398
Urinoma 22.20 19.29 7 14866 214 29937391
Cytomegalovirus enterocolitis 22.19 19.29 10 14863 830 29936775
Cutaneous mucormycosis 22.08 19.29 5 14868 40 29937565
Urinary tract infection enterococcal 21.79 19.29 10 14863 866 29936739
Enamel anomaly 21.78 19.29 6 14867 113 29937492
Chest pain 21.75 19.29 16 14857 117611 29819994
Pain in extremity 21.70 19.29 14 14859 110207 29827398
Back pain 21.65 19.29 12 14861 102584 29835021
Functional gastrointestinal disorder 21.20 19.29 13 14860 2026 29935579
Immunosuppressant drug level decreased 21.17 19.29 11 14862 1248 29936357
Pulmonary mucormycosis 21.04 19.29 8 14865 431 29937174
Hepatic artery thrombosis 21.03 19.29 7 14866 255 29937350
Hyperhidrosis 20.86 19.29 4 14869 67086 29870519
Osmotic demyelination syndrome 20.81 19.29 9 14864 677 29936928
Bacterial pyelonephritis 20.75 19.29 7 14866 266 29937339
Anastomotic haemorrhage 20.73 19.29 6 14867 136 29937469
Rash papulosquamous 20.73 19.29 5 14868 54 29937551
Renal haemorrhage 20.72 19.29 11 14862 1304 29936301
Ureteric dilatation 20.61 19.29 6 14867 139 29937466
Drug level fluctuating 20.58 19.29 8 14865 458 29937147
Peripheral swelling 20.41 19.29 3 14870 61071 29876534
Pneumonia cryptococcal 20.32 19.29 9 14864 717 29936888
Neuropathy peripheral 20.30 19.29 5 14868 70470 29867135
Retinitis 20.10 19.29 7 14866 293 29937312
Hyperglycaemia 20.07 19.29 50 14823 35150 29902455
Renal haematoma 19.86 19.29 8 14865 503 29937102
Blindness cortical 19.85 19.29 7 14866 304 29937301
Bilirubin conjugated increased 19.65 19.29 15 14858 3336 29934269
Cryoglobulinaemia 19.60 19.29 7 14866 316 29937289
Erythema 19.57 19.29 7 14866 77444 29860161
Acute graft versus host disease 19.56 19.29 19 14854 5845 29931760
Somnolence 19.44 19.29 12 14861 96751 29840854
Condition aggravated 19.37 19.29 24 14849 137842 29799763

Pharmacologic Action:

SourceCodeDescription
ATC L04AC02 ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS
IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS
IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS
Interleukin inhibitors
FDA MoA N0000010279 Interleukin 2 Receptor Antagonists
FDA MoA N0000175621 Interleukin 2 Receptor-directed Antibody Interactions
FDA EPC N0000175622 Interleukin-2 Receptor Blocking Antibody
MeSH PA D007155 Immunologic Factors
MeSH PA D007166 Immunosuppressive Agents

Drug Use (View source of the data)

DiseaseRelationSNOMED_IDDOID
Renal transplant rejection indication 236570004

Acid dissociation constants calculated using MoKa v3.0.0

None

Orange Book patent data (new drug applications)

None

Orange Book exclusivity data (new drug applications)

None

Bioactivity Summary:

TargetClassPharosUniProtActionTypeActivity value
(-log[M])
Mechanism
action
Bioact sourceMoA source
Interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha Membrane receptor ANTIBODY BINDING Kd 10 DRUG LABEL DRUG LABEL

External reference:

IDSource
9927MT646M UNII
D03058 KEGG_DRUG
4021113 VUID
N0000148568 NUI
4021113 VANDF
C0676831 UMLSCUI
CHEMBL1201439 ChEMBL_ID
DB00074 DRUGBANK_ID
D000077552 MESH_DESCRIPTOR_UI
7578 INN_ID
6879 IUPHAR_LIGAND_ID
196102 RXNORM
11703 MMSL
4246 MMSL
d04314 MMSL
007552 NDDF
109135008 SNOMEDCT_US
386978004 SNOMEDCT_US

Pharmaceutical products:

ProductCategoryIngredientsNDCFormQuantityRouteMarketingLabel
Simulect HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0078-0331 INJECTION, POWDER, FOR SOLUTION 20 mg INTRAVENOUS BLA 24 sections
Simulect HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0078-0393 INJECTION, POWDER, FOR SOLUTION 10 mg INTRAVENOUS BLA 24 sections