Drug results: 22

nitric oxide A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP. It has been shown to have in vitro activity against severe acute res-piratory syndrome corona-virus (SARS-CoV-1) but evidence supporting the use of inhaled nitric oxide in COVID-19 patients is currently limited.
nitrogen An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
uracil mustard Nitrogen mustard derivative of URACIL. It is a alkylating antineoplastic agent that is used in lymphatic malignancies, and causes mainly gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.
mechlorethamine A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
oxygen An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
helium A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics.
carbon dioxide A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
chlorambucil A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
naproxcinod a nitric oxide-releasing NSAID derivative
bendamustine A nitrogen mustard compound that functions as an ALKYLATING ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT and is used in the treatment of CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA and NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA.
melphalan An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
inosine A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
latanoprostene bunod Latanoprostene bunod is thought to lower intraocular pressure by increasing outflow of aqueous humor through both the trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral routes. Intraocular pressure is a major modifiable risk factor for glaucoma progression. Reduction of intraocular pressure reduces risk of glaucomatous visual field loss.
cyclophosphamide Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
melphalan flufenamide Melphalan flufenamide is a peptide conjugated alkylating drug. Due to its lipophilicity, melphalan flufenamide is passively distributed into cells and thereafter enzymatically hydrolyzed to melphalan. Similar to other nitrogen mustard drugs, crosslinking of DNA is involved in the antitumor activity of melphalan flufenamide. In cellular assays, melphalan flufenamide inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of hematopoietic and solid tumor cells. Additionally, melphalan flufenamide showed synergistic cytotoxicity with dexamethasone in melphalan resistant and non-resistant multiple myeloma cell lines.
tryptophan An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
estramustine A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.
glutamine A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
nitrous oxide Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
molsidomine A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
padeliporfin Padeliporfin is retained within the vascular system. When activated with 753 nm wavelength laser light, padeliporfin triggers a cascade of pathophysiological events resulting in focal necrosis within a few days. Activation within the illuminated tumour vasculature, generates oxygen radicals causing local hypoxia that induces the release of nitric oxide radicals. This results in transient arterial vasodilatation that triggers the release of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1. Rapid consumption of the NO radicals, by oxygen radicals, leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (e.g. peroxynitrite), in parallel to arterial constriction. In addition, impaired deformability is thought to enhance erythrocyte aggregability and formation of blood clots at the interface of the arterial supply (feeding arteries) and tumour microcirculation, results in occlusion of the tumour vasculature. This is enhanced by RNS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and initiation of self-propagated tumour cells necrosis through peroxidation of their membrane.
mannomustine Nitrogen mustard derivative alkylating agent used as antineoplastic. It causes severe bone marrow depression and is a powerful vesicant.

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