carbamazepine Indications/Contra | FAERs-F | FAERs-M | Orange Bk | BioActivity |

Stem definitionDrug idCAS RN
tricyclic compounds 489 298-46-4

Description:

MoleculeDescription

Molfile Inchi Smiles

Synonyms:

  • carbamazepine
  • carbamazepen
  • carbamazepin
  • carbazepine
  • carbamazepine dihydrate
  • carbamazepine hydrate
  • carbamazepine hydrochloride
  • carbamazepine sulfate
  • carbamazepine anhydrous
  • carbamazepine phosphate
  • carbamazepine tartrate
A dibenzazepine that acts as a sodium channel blocker. It is used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of grand mal and psychomotor or focal SEIZURES. It may also be used in the management of BIPOLAR DISORDER, and has analgesic properties.
  • Molecular weight: 236.27
  • Formula: C15H12N2O
  • CLOGP: 2.38
  • LIPINSKI: 0
  • HAC: 3
  • HDO: 1
  • TPSA: 46.33
  • ALOGS: -3.19
  • ROTB: 0

  • Status: OFP

  • Legend:
    OFP - off patent
    OFM - off market
    ONP - on patent

Drug dosage:

DoseUnitRoute
1 g O
1 g R

ADMET properties:

PropertyValueReference
BDDCS (Biopharmaceutical Drug Disposition Classification System) 2 Benet LZ, Broccatelli F, Oprea TI
S (Water solubility) 0.26 mg/mL Benet LZ, Broccatelli F, Oprea TI
EoM (Fraction excreted unchanged in urine) 0.50 % Benet LZ, Broccatelli F, Oprea TI
MRTD (Maximum Recommended Therapeutic Daily Dose) 113.00 ┬ÁM/kg/day Contrera JF, Matthews EJ, Kruhlak NL, Benz RD
BA (Bioavailability) 70 % Kim MT, Sedykh A, Chakravarti SK, Saiakhov RD, Zhu H

Approvals:

DateAgencyCompanyOrphan
March 11, 1968 FDA NOVARTIS

FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (Female)

MedDRA adverse event termLikelihood ratioLikelihood ratio thresholdPatients taking drug having adverse eventPatients taking drug not having adverse eventPatients not taking drug having adverse eventPatients not taking drug not having adverse event
Seizure 1770.78 31.35 584 7077 23882 2326542
Toxicity to various agents 1421.82 31.35 535 7126 32219 2318205
Maternal exposure during pregnancy 1380.82 31.35 430 7231 14433 2335991
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms 1374.05 31.35 346 7315 5172 2345252
Pyrexia 1121.80 31.35 521 7140 53187 2297237
Hyponatraemia 1003.00 31.35 329 7332 12996 2337428
Abortion spontaneous 1000.11 31.35 329 7332 13116 2337308
Completed suicide 859.72 31.35 330 7331 20704 2329720
Rash 788.75 31.35 425 7236 59133 2291291
Drug interaction 765.21 31.35 333 7328 28830 2321594
Somnolence 728 31.35 302 7359 23183 2327241
Exposure during pregnancy 693.96 31.35 298 7363 24921 2325503
Epilepsy 613.81 31.35 177 7484 4462 2345962
Overdose 596.12 31.35 250 7411 19657 2330767
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 583.53 31.35 167 7494 4092 2346332
Coma 539.47 31.35 188 7473 8868 2341556
Generalised tonic-clonic seizure 507.14 31.35 158 7503 5214 2345210
Intentional overdose 494.86 31.35 187 7474 11134 2339290
Dizziness 481.63 31.35 308 7353 58357 2292067
Suicide attempt 477.38 31.35 182 7479 11100 2339324
Drug ineffective 470.68 31.35 376 7285 101248 2249176
Anticonvulsant drug level increased 464.64 31.35 87 7574 258 2350166
Drug eruption 460.65 31.35 131 7530 3128 2347296
Drug hypersensitivity 435.58 31.35 266 7395 46377 2304047
Condition aggravated 420.29 31.35 228 7433 31751 2318673
Gamma-glutamyltransferase increased 415.65 31.35 137 7524 5425 2344999
Erythema 412.22 31.35 208 7453 24951 2325473
Toxic epidermal necrolysis 411.28 31.35 119 7542 3025 2347399
Drug abuse 396.38 31.35 162 7499 11864 2338560
Vomiting 393.99 31.35 294 7367 71308 2279116
Confusional state 380.48 31.35 195 7466 24149 2326275
Loss of consciousness 357.34 31.35 172 7489 18595 2331829
Ataxia 351.27 31.35 100 7561 2392 2348032
Rash maculo-papular 338.85 31.35 110 7551 4142 2346282
Status epilepticus 338.33 31.35 97 7564 2381 2348043
Drug level increased 335.82 31.35 99 7562 2688 2347736
Alanine aminotransferase increased 333.50 31.35 150 7511 13882 2336542
Pruritus 314.25 31.35 211 7450 43129 2307295
Stillbirth 297.00 31.35 78 7583 1363 2349061
Fall 296.02 31.35 210 7451 46889 2303535
Eosinophilia 286.91 31.35 89 7572 2881 2347543
Aspartate aminotransferase increased 284.34 31.35 130 7531 12482 2337942
Dysarthria 274.58 31.35 104 7557 6198 2344226
Depressed level of consciousness 272.90 31.35 109 7552 7495 2342929
Diplopia 269.36 31.35 88 7573 3377 2347047
Petit mal epilepsy 258.27 31.35 61 7600 672 2349752
Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion 251.97 31.35 76 7585 2233 2348191
Lymphadenopathy 248.09 31.35 94 7567 5604 2344820
Malaise 243.62 31.35 200 7461 55385 2295039
Nystagmus 240.31 31.35 63 7598 1092 2349332
Gait disturbance 239.30 31.35 140 7521 22405 2328019
Cognitive disorder 235.09 31.35 89 7572 5292 2345132
Hypotension 234.94 31.35 158 7503 32278 2318146
Hepatic function abnormal 234.90 31.35 92 7569 6000 2344424
Nausea 232.30 31.35 267 7394 111922 2238502
Balance disorder 230.75 31.35 104 7557 9643 2340781
Product complaint 227.34 31.35 83 7578 4455 2345969
Altered state of consciousness 221.22 31.35 78 7583 3782 2346642
Blood alkaline phosphatase increased 218.17 31.35 89 7572 6456 2343968
Foetal exposure during pregnancy 211.97 31.35 82 7579 5170 2345254
Sedation 204.40 31.35 71 7590 3291 2347133
Tachycardia 201.13 31.35 112 7549 16297 2334127
Electroencephalogram abnormal 200.71 31.35 51 7610 776 2349648
Tremor 200.12 31.35 121 7540 20540 2329884
Erythema multiforme 196.72 31.35 62 7599 2113 2348311
Asthenia 193.21 31.35 163 7498 46763 2303661
Blood lactate dehydrogenase increased 186.73 31.35 67 7594 3417 2347007
Sopor 185.08 31.35 69 7592 3926 2346498
Hepatocellular injury 184.08 31.35 69 7592 3986 2346438
Myoclonus 180.62 31.35 60 7601 2423 2348001
Hepatitis 177.03 31.35 76 7585 6261 2344163
Blister 175.43 31.35 77 7584 6694 2343730
Vertigo 175.20 31.35 85 7576 9299 2341125
Skin exfoliation 173.55 31.35 73 7588 5717 2344707
Cardiac arrest 164.29 31.35 95 7566 14835 2335589
Bradycardia 158.50 31.35 81 7580 9900 2340524
Intentional self-injury 157.87 31.35 62 7599 4065 2346359
Headache 153.97 31.35 184 7477 79995 2270429
Agitation 153.54 31.35 82 7579 10969 2339455
Drug level decreased 150.50 31.35 42 7619 929 2349495
Depression 150.35 31.35 114 7547 28018 2322406
Dysphagia 150.30 31.35 85 7576 12720 2337704
C-reactive protein increased 148.76 31.35 67 7594 6188 2344236
Human herpesvirus 6 infection 146.34 31.35 34 7627 346 2350078
Abnormal behaviour 145.93 31.35 61 7600 4699 2345725
Dermatitis exfoliative 144.65 31.35 43 7618 1198 2349226
Liver disorder 143.99 31.35 66 7595 6348 2344076
Speech disorder 143.50 31.35 66 7595 6398 2344026
Face oedema 142.92 31.35 57 7604 3891 2346533
Leukopenia 142.60 31.35 76 7585 10120 2340304
Thrombocytopenia 142.60 31.35 95 7566 19036 2331388
Cerebellar syndrome 141.81 31.35 36 7625 545 2349879
Fatigue 139.23 31.35 180 7481 84693 2265731
Anxiety 137.40 31.35 110 7551 29249 2321175
Psychotic disorder 136.89 31.35 58 7603 4621 2345803
Cardio-respiratory arrest 135.91 31.35 71 7590 9075 2341349
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome 134.43 31.35 46 7615 2034 2348390
Focal dyscognitive seizures 133.66 31.35 34 7627 519 2349905
Rash erythematous 132.60 31.35 61 7600 5915 2344509
Cholestasis 132.19 31.35 53 7608 3668 2346756
Caesarean section 130.83 31.35 54 7607 4027 2346397
Partial seizures 130.22 31.35 37 7624 875 2349549
Product substitution issue 129.18 31.35 57 7604 5012 2345412
Poisoning 128.01 31.35 48 7613 2772 2347652
Toxic skin eruption 126.89 31.35 45 7616 2215 2348209
Syncope 126.22 31.35 84 7577 16791 2333633
Decreased appetite 126.22 31.35 104 7557 28787 2321637
Trigeminal neuralgia 123.11 31.35 33 7628 624 2349800
Anticonvulsant drug level above therapeutic 123.08 31.35 25 7636 125 2350299
Myoclonic epilepsy 122.58 31.35 27 7634 211 2350213
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased 122.06 31.35 55 7606 5081 2345343
Respiratory arrest 121.43 31.35 58 7603 6120 2344304
Skin lesion 121.42 31.35 51 7610 3974 2346450
Drug resistance 120.33 31.35 45 7616 2579 2347845
Feeling abnormal 120.31 31.35 93 7568 23488 2326936
Mouth ulceration 116.11 31.35 49 7612 3863 2346561
Lymphocyte stimulation test positive 116.10 31.35 26 7635 221 2350203
Therapeutic product cross-reactivity 115.25 31.35 28 7633 350 2350074
Oral mucosa erosion 114.18 31.35 26 7635 240 2350184
Disorientation 113.72 31.35 56 7605 6316 2344108
White blood cell count decreased 113.45 31.35 81 7580 18127 2332297
Coordination abnormal 113.18 31.35 40 7621 1948 2348476
Insomnia 110.87 31.35 92 7569 25695 2324729
Hypogammaglobulinaemia 110.08 31.35 31 7630 709 2349715
Dyskinesia 109.73 31.35 50 7611 4739 2345685
Eosinophil count increased 109.51 31.35 34 7627 1100 2349324
Memory impairment 108.04 31.35 69 7592 12854 2337570
Aura 107.81 31.35 25 7636 252 2350172
Coma scale abnormal 107.00 31.35 31 7630 787 2349637
Aggression 106.62 31.35 49 7612 4737 2345687
Anticonvulsant drug level decreased 106.24 31.35 25 7636 270 2350154
Hypotonia 103.04 31.35 36 7625 1694 2348730
Lethargy 102.51 31.35 58 7603 8672 2341752
Pain 102.48 31.35 132 7529 61725 2288699
Transaminases increased 102.30 31.35 47 7614 4540 2345884
Amnesia 101.19 31.35 54 7607 7199 2343225
Lymphocyte morphology abnormal 100.88 31.35 21 7640 121 2350303
Restlessness 99.40 31.35 46 7615 4517 2345907
Aphasia 99.08 31.35 47 7614 4881 2345543
Conjunctivitis 98.75 31.35 38 7623 2355 2348069
Normal newborn 96.85 31.35 32 7629 1268 2349156
Vision blurred 95.39 31.35 67 7594 14601 2335823
Leukocytosis 93.64 31.35 41 7620 3535 2346889
Intellectual disability 93.62 31.35 20 7641 133 2350291
Encephalopathy 93.23 31.35 44 7617 4517 2345907
Dysmorphism 93.22 31.35 24 7637 385 2350039
Human herpes virus 6 serology positive 92.41 31.35 17 7644 44 2350380
Hypokalaemia 91.82 31.35 58 7603 10596 2339828
Nikolsky's sign 90.90 31.35 19 7642 112 2350312
Respiratory failure 90.78 31.35 63 7598 13465 2336959
Neutropenia 88.70 31.35 75 7586 21473 2328951
Unresponsive to stimuli 87.43 31.35 43 7618 4833 2345591
Hepatic failure 86.87 31.35 45 7616 5644 2344780
Medication error 86.51 31.35 46 7615 6085 2344339
Platelet count decreased 86.38 31.35 65 7596 15748 2334676
Blood sodium decreased 85.93 31.35 37 7624 3063 2347361
Pregnancy 85.80 31.35 50 7611 7899 2342525
Mental status changes 84.79 31.35 44 7617 5538 2344886
Therapeutic response unexpected 84.35 31.35 39 7622 3820 2346604
Swelling face 82.60 31.35 52 7609 9441 2340983
Petechiae 82.28 31.35 32 7629 2040 2348384
Urticaria 81.01 31.35 75 7586 24186 2326238
Hyperammonaemia 80.56 31.35 25 7636 807 2349617
White blood cell count increased 80.33 31.35 46 7615 7032 2343392
Purpura 79.19 31.35 30 7631 1780 2348644
Abortion induced 79.10 31.35 36 7625 3400 2347024
Irritability 78.97 31.35 44 7617 6383 2344041
Temporal lobe epilepsy 78.60 31.35 16 7645 81 2350343
Premature baby 78.30 31.35 35 7626 3169 2347255
Premature labour 78.26 31.35 31 7630 2075 2348349
Liver function test abnormal 77.91 31.35 46 7615 7444 2342980
Hypersensitivity 76.97 31.35 72 7589 23521 2326903
Pneumonia 76.58 31.35 102 7559 49194 2301230
Muscular weakness 76.44 31.35 59 7602 14838 2335586
Lip erosion 76.38 31.35 17 7644 140 2350284
Maternal drugs affecting foetus 76.31 31.35 28 7633 1519 2348905
Agranulocytosis 75.51 31.35 35 7626 3447 2346977
Suicidal ideation 75.24 31.35 52 7609 11035 2339389
Hallucination 74.33 31.35 46 7615 8102 2342322
Respiratory depression 73.91 31.35 30 7631 2140 2348284
Shock 73.84 31.35 36 7625 3968 2346456
Hepatic enzyme increased 73.72 31.35 49 7612 9753 2340671
Constipation 72.46 31.35 67 7594 21562 2328862
Haemoglobin decreased 72.27 31.35 62 7599 18089 2332335
Premature delivery 72.00 31.35 33 7628 3167 2347257
Weight increased 70.62 31.35 67 7594 22270 2328154
Mental impairment 70.52 31.35 30 7631 2410 2348014
Mania 70.52 31.35 30 7631 2410 2348014
Heart rate increased 70.49 31.35 50 7611 11055 2339369
Delirium 70.35 31.35 38 7623 5185 2345239
Disturbance in attention 70.06 31.35 39 7622 5646 2344778
Meningomyelocele 69.95 31.35 14 7647 64 2350360
Pancytopenia 69.11 31.35 50 7611 11402 2339022
Mucosal erosion 69.06 31.35 17 7644 225 2350199
Oropharyngeal pain 68.85 31.35 50 7611 11468 2338956
Lymphocytosis 68.50 31.35 19 7642 410 2350014
Hyperthermia 66.65 31.35 25 7636 1443 2348981
Middle insomnia 66.50 31.35 25 7636 1452 2348972
Product dispensing error 66.09 31.35 29 7632 2512 2347912
Eye movement disorder 65.38 31.35 23 7638 1104 2349320
Developmental glaucoma 64.81 31.35 11 7650 14 2350410
Drug-induced liver injury 64.46 31.35 32 7629 3667 2346757
Hypothyroidism 64.45 31.35 34 7627 4423 2346001
Anticonvulsant drug level below therapeutic 64.42 31.35 15 7646 154 2350270
Poisoning deliberate 64.13 31.35 23 7638 1168 2349256
Gastric lavage 63.68 31.35 12 7649 37 2350387
Nervous system disorder 63.48 31.35 30 7631 3086 2347338
Urinary incontinence 63.23 31.35 33 7628 4200 2346224
Drug intolerance 63.21 31.35 51 7610 13666 2336758
Mental disorder 62.04 31.35 32 7629 3975 2346449
Blood pressure decreased 61.91 31.35 43 7618 9193 2341231
Urinary retention 61.77 31.35 31 7630 3636 2346788
Pneumonia aspiration 61.17 31.35 31 7630 3711 2346713
Electrocardiogram QT prolonged 61.03 31.35 40 7621 7774 2342650
Oedema peripheral 59.84 31.35 63 7598 23700 2326724
Self esteem decreased 59.67 31.35 14 7647 149 2350275
Orthostatic hypotension 59.52 31.35 28 7633 2851 2347573
Accidental overdose 59.43 31.35 31 7630 3941 2346483
Ovarian granulosa-theca cell tumour 59.24 31.35 10 7651 12 2350412
Visual impairment 59.08 31.35 46 7615 11709 2338715
Product use in unapproved indication 58.84 31.35 45 7616 11155 2339269
Vitamin D deficiency 58.76 31.35 23 7638 1491 2348933
Oculomucocutaneous syndrome 58.63 31.35 13 7648 105 2350319
Foetal anticonvulsant syndrome 57.99 31.35 13 7648 111 2350313
Conjunctival hyperaemia 57.88 31.35 18 7643 585 2349839
Lymphopenia 57.39 31.35 26 7635 2428 2347996
Areflexia 57.30 31.35 18 7643 605 2349819
Blood creatinine increased 56.83 31.35 43 7618 10490 2339934
Hippocampal sclerosis 56.83 31.35 10 7651 18 2350406
Off label use 55.90 31.35 110 7551 73488 2276936
Hypertension 55.88 31.35 65 7596 27296 2323128
Oedema 55.82 31.35 42 7619 10161 2340263
Eyelid oedema 55.70 31.35 26 7635 2600 2347824
Skin erosion 55.37 31.35 16 7645 402 2350022
Cough 55.21 31.35 71 7590 33046 2317378
Hyporeflexia 54.96 31.35 16 7645 413 2350011
Neurotoxicity 54.39 31.35 24 7637 2106 2348318
Brain injury 54.24 31.35 19 7642 900 2349524
Lymphadenitis 53.93 31.35 16 7645 442 2349982
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 52.57 31.35 27 7634 3323 2347101
Jaundice 52.53 31.35 32 7629 5476 2344948
Drug dependence 52.04 31.35 26 7635 3019 2347405
Myalgia 51.99 31.35 58 7603 23275 2327149
Drug level above therapeutic 51.89 31.35 16 7645 505 2349919
Red blood cell count decreased 51.83 31.35 29 7632 4237 2346187
Haematocrit decreased 51.50 31.35 29 7632 4289 2346135
Body temperature increased 51.05 31.35 26 7635 3145 2347279
Pulmonary oedema 51.03 31.35 35 7626 7328 2343096
Bradyphrenia 50.92 31.35 19 7642 1080 2349344
Febrile convulsion 50.54 31.35 12 7649 135 2350289
Rash pruritic 50.30 31.35 35 7626 7500 2342924
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 50.13 31.35 26 7635 3266 2347158
Treatment noncompliance 49.84 31.35 31 7630 5503 2344921
Rash papular 49.43 31.35 24 7637 2620 2347804
Pigmentation disorder 49.39 31.35 17 7644 764 2349660
Lip ulceration 49.08 31.35 13 7648 234 2350190
Hemiparesis 48.98 31.35 26 7635 3424 2347000
Central nervous system lesion 48.38 31.35 22 7639 2072 2348352
Sedation complication 48.32 31.35 12 7649 165 2350259
Sepsis 48.29 31.35 50 7611 18438 2331986
Hypoproteinaemia 48.18 31.35 14 7647 359 2350065
Acidosis 47.20 31.35 20 7641 1590 2348834
Apathy 47.17 31.35 19 7642 1328 2349096
Osteopenia 46.83 31.35 21 7640 1914 2348510
Foetal growth restriction 46.65 31.35 18 7643 1122 2349302
Weight decreased 45.98 31.35 60 7601 28311 2322113
Hepatotoxicity 45.96 31.35 25 7636 3456 2346968
Lip swelling 45.95 31.35 28 7633 4793 2345631
Hypoglycaemia neonatal 45.79 31.35 12 7649 207 2350217
Blood bilirubin increased 45.77 31.35 29 7632 5316 2345108
Myocarditis 45.43 31.35 18 7643 1205 2349219
Microcephaly 45.15 31.35 11 7650 139 2350285
Ventricular septal defect 44.92 31.35 16 7645 796 2349628
Abortion threatened 44.66 31.35 11 7650 146 2350278
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis 44.33 31.35 10 7651 88 2350336
Dystonia 44.31 31.35 21 7640 2173 2348251
Paraesthesia 44.29 31.35 52 7609 22036 2328388
Mydriasis 44.08 31.35 21 7640 2198 2348226
Facial pain 44.03 31.35 18 7643 1307 2349117
Depressed mood 44.01 31.35 28 7633 5170 2345254
Blood osmolarity decreased 43.98 31.35 11 7650 156 2350268
Death 43.84 31.35 106 7555 81362 2269062
Schizophrenia 43.59 31.35 18 7643 1341 2349083
Stupor 43.53 31.35 15 7646 676 2349748
Sinus node dysfunction 43.47 31.35 15 7646 679 2349745
Photophobia 43.46 31.35 21 7640 2268 2348156
Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy 43.28 31.35 10 7651 99 2350325
Histiocytosis 43.13 31.35 8 7653 22 2350402
Sleep disorder 42.98 31.35 30 7631 6459 2343965
Eye discharge 42.92 31.35 16 7645 907 2349517
Colitis microscopic 42.70 31.35 16 7645 920 2349504
Developmental hip dysplasia 42.63 31.35 11 7650 178 2350246
Rhabdomyolysis 42.10 31.35 30 7631 6674 2343750
Paranoia 42.04 31.35 20 7641 2087 2348337
Hepatomegaly 41.77 31.35 19 7642 1790 2348634
Hypoxia 41.74 31.35 29 7632 6198 2344226
Teratogenicity 41.67 31.35 8 7653 28 2350396
Stereotypy 41.60 31.35 10 7651 119 2350305
Blood calcium decreased 41.58 31.35 20 7641 2138 2348286
Muscle rigidity 41.55 31.35 19 7642 1812 2348612
Sinus tachycardia 41.47 31.35 23 7638 3302 2347122
Periorbital oedema 41.40 31.35 16 7645 1002 2349422
Hallucination, auditory 41.29 31.35 20 7641 2172 2348252
Skin test positive 41.17 31.35 11 7650 205 2350219
Oral pain 41.01 31.35 23 7638 3374 2347050
Blood pressure increased 40.91 31.35 44 7617 16942 2333482
Catatonia 40.50 31.35 15 7646 835 2349589
Potentiating drug interaction 40.48 31.35 14 7647 638 2349786
Hypophagia 40.10 31.35 24 7637 3976 2346448
Asterixis 40.02 31.35 11 7650 229 2350195
Gaze palsy 39.89 31.35 12 7649 348 2350076
Periodic limb movement disorder 39.55 31.35 8 7653 39 2350385
Gingival hypertrophy 39.53 31.35 12 7649 359 2350065
Delusion 39.37 31.35 19 7642 2046 2348378
Diabetes insipidus 39.31 31.35 12 7649 366 2350058
Rash morbilliform 39.17 31.35 13 7648 522 2349902
Nervousness 39.14 31.35 26 7635 5163 2345261
Lymphocyte percentage decreased 39.00 31.35 12 7649 376 2350048
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome 38.59 31.35 30 7631 7611 2342813
Dermatitis bullous 38.57 31.35 17 7644 1487 2348937
Anaemia megaloblastic 38.34 31.35 9 7652 96 2350328
Oscillopsia 38.29 31.35 8 7653 47 2350377
Metabolic acidosis 38.03 31.35 27 7634 5971 2344453
Psychomotor skills impaired 38.01 31.35 12 7649 410 2350014
Slow speech 37.74 31.35 11 7650 285 2350139
Drug level below therapeutic 37.65 31.35 12 7649 423 2350001
Psychomotor hyperactivity 37.60 31.35 18 7643 1904 2348520
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 37.60 31.35 10 7651 183 2350241
Sinus arrest 37.28 31.35 11 7650 298 2350126
Ocular hyperaemia 37.23 31.35 23 7638 4033 2346391
Blood glucose increased 37.17 31.35 36 7625 12254 2338170
Pancreatitis 37.11 31.35 30 7631 8049 2342375
Blood urea increased 37.10 31.35 22 7639 3583 2346841
Autism spectrum disorder 37.00 31.35 9 7652 113 2350311
Antinuclear antibody positive 36.98 31.35 15 7646 1067 2349357
Dermatitis 36.81 31.35 19 7642 2361 2348063
Eczema 36.80 31.35 21 7640 3184 2347240
Neuralgia 36.51 31.35 20 7641 2802 2347622
Stomatitis 36.26 31.35 32 7629 9678 2340746
Hypokinesia 36.07 31.35 17 7644 1737 2348687
Papule 35.91 31.35 14 7647 897 2349527
Dehydration 35.87 31.35 47 7614 22248 2328176
Neutrophil count decreased 35.83 31.35 27 7634 6540 2343884
Spina bifida 35.83 31.35 9 7652 130 2350294
Hypothermia 35.70 31.35 18 7643 2130 2348294
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 35.53 31.35 7 7654 29 2350395
Musculoskeletal stiffness 35.40 31.35 35 7626 12212 2338212
Pseudolymphoma 35.39 31.35 9 7652 137 2350287
Disease recurrence 35.36 31.35 21 7640 3430 2346994
Visual field defect 35.25 31.35 16 7645 1500 2348924
Blood hyposmosis 35.19 31.35 6 7655 8 2350416
Foetal death 34.67 31.35 17 7644 1895 2348529
Respiratory distress 34.64 31.35 24 7637 5105 2345319
Blood immunoglobulin A decreased 34.55 31.35 8 7653 80 2350344
Metabolic encephalopathy 34.44 31.35 12 7649 559 2349865
Concomitant disease aggravated 34.43 31.35 14 7647 1002 2349422
Rhesus incompatibility 34.03 31.35 6 7655 11 2350413
Conversion disorder 33.97 31.35 11 7650 408 2350016
Maternal exposure during breast feeding 33.94 31.35 12 7649 584 2349840
Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis 33.88 31.35 16 7645 1642 2348782
Vanishing bile duct syndrome 33.82 31.35 9 7652 165 2350259
Generalised oedema 33.80 31.35 18 7643 2385 2348039
Facial paralysis 33.68 31.35 18 7643 2401 2348023
Metabolic disorder 33.52 31.35 12 7649 606 2349818
Renal failure 33.38 31.35 40 7621 17309 2333115
Myoglobin blood increased 33.30 31.35 10 7651 288 2350136
Cheilitis 33.16 31.35 13 7648 846 2349578
Hypocalcaemia 33.07 31.35 21 7640 3862 2346562
Oral disorder 33.05 31.35 15 7646 1406 2349018
Abortion 32.78 31.35 13 7648 872 2349552
Hypochloraemia 32.69 31.35 10 7651 307 2350117
Aplastic anaemia 32.51 31.35 13 7648 891 2349533
Vaginal ulceration 32.42 31.35 8 7653 107 2350317
Bone marrow failure 32.41 31.35 24 7637 5662 2344762
Polyuria 32.39 31.35 14 7647 1168 2349256
Incorrect dose administered 32.37 31.35 30 7631 9665 2340759
Creatinine renal clearance decreased 32.35 31.35 13 7648 903 2349521
Serotonin syndrome 32.30 31.35 20 7641 3520 2346904
Hyperhidrosis 32.06 31.35 37 7624 15385 2335039
Neurological symptom 32.02 31.35 13 7648 927 2349497
Atrioventricular block 32.00 31.35 14 7647 1203 2349221
Urinary tract infection 31.97 31.35 52 7609 29890 2320534
Blood chloride decreased 31.96 31.35 12 7649 694 2349730
Hepatitis acute 31.94 31.35 15 7646 1520 2348904
Splenomegaly 31.79 31.35 15 7646 1536 2348888
Interstitial lung disease 31.70 31.35 27 7634 7785 2342639
Dyspnoea 31.69 31.35 92 7569 78641 2271783
Acute kidney injury 31.62 31.35 50 7611 28072 2322352
Extrapyramidal disorder 31.38 31.35 17 7644 2330 2348094

FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (Male)

MedDRA adverse event termLikelihood ratioLikelihood ratio thresholdPatients taking drug having adverse eventPatients taking drug not having adverse eventPatients not taking drug having adverse eventPatients not taking drug not having adverse event
Seizure 1873.10 27.99 620 5417 19821 1720923
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms 1416.28 27.99 367 5670 4703 1736041
Toxicity to various agents 990.45 27.99 430 5607 28711 1712033
Pyrexia 885.96 27.99 460 5577 45940 1694804
Rash 694.59 27.99 369 5668 38324 1702420
Epilepsy 693.25 27.99 199 5838 3760 1736984
Drug interaction 611.41 27.99 305 5732 27653 1713091
Hyponatraemia 592.00 27.99 215 5822 8785 1731959
Somnolence 578.45 27.99 251 5786 16488 1724256
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 539.62 27.99 158 5879 3199 1737545
Generalised tonic-clonic seizure 531.74 27.99 163 5874 3883 1736861
Gamma-glutamyltransferase increased 478.59 27.99 159 5878 4939 1735805
Anticonvulsant drug level increased 464.14 27.99 91 5946 262 1740482
Drug ineffective 441.20 27.99 333 5704 63468 1677276
Overdose 438.54 27.99 207 5830 16494 1724250
Drug eruption 436.29 27.99 130 5907 2796 1737948
Completed suicide 412.33 27.99 197 5840 16115 1724629
Alanine aminotransferase increased 393.72 27.99 175 5862 12103 1728641
Lymphadenopathy 388.66 27.99 129 5908 3985 1736759
Aggression 374.81 27.99 150 5887 7965 1732779
Ataxia 365.73 27.99 108 5929 2245 1738499
Aspartate aminotransferase increased 359.85 27.99 158 5879 10598 1730146
Status epilepticus 358.16 27.99 103 5934 1943 1738801
Erythema 348.10 27.99 168 5869 14020 1726724
Dizziness 342.55 27.99 225 5812 34136 1706608
Rash maculo-papular 341.27 27.99 114 5923 3589 1737155
Gait disturbance 338.15 27.99 159 5878 12511 1728233
Intentional overdose 334.20 27.99 136 5901 7534 1733210
Drug level increased 327.11 27.99 103 5934 2674 1738070
Loss of consciousness 302.21 27.99 155 5882 14720 1726024
Foetal exposure during pregnancy 291.52 27.99 117 5920 6242 1734502
Eosinophilia 291.18 27.99 100 5937 3427 1737317
Condition aggravated 277.10 27.99 165 5872 20985 1719759
Suicide attempt 271.35 27.99 116 5921 7265 1733479
Fall 267.78 27.99 177 5860 27037 1713707
Toxic epidermal necrolysis 262.85 27.99 84 5953 2287 1738457
Coma 259.93 27.99 112 5925 7150 1733594
Hepatic function abnormal 259.44 27.99 111 5926 6963 1733781
Agitation 253.42 27.99 125 5912 10901 1729843
Vomiting 252.16 27.99 195 5842 38120 1702624
Nystagmus 249.73 27.99 66 5971 893 1739851
Confusional state 235.20 27.99 149 5888 21129 1719615
Pruritus 225.71 27.99 150 5887 23072 1717672
Diplopia 220.35 27.99 75 5962 2495 1738249
Dysarthria 214.36 27.99 89 5948 5170 1735574
Sopor 209.91 27.99 68 5969 1933 1738811
Blood lactate dehydrogenase increased 204.93 27.99 78 5959 3597 1737147
Abnormal behaviour 201.52 27.99 90 5947 6252 1734492
Lymphocyte stimulation test positive 197.25 27.99 43 5994 235 1740509
C-reactive protein increased 191.73 27.99 85 5952 5800 1734944
Skin exfoliation 189.02 27.99 78 5959 4457 1736287
Blood alkaline phosphatase increased 188.64 27.99 81 5956 5114 1735630
Coordination abnormal 186.48 27.99 58 5979 1439 1739305
Drug hypersensitivity 184.76 27.99 113 5924 15022 1725722
Balance disorder 183.10 27.99 82 5955 5730 1735014
Petit mal epilepsy 181.41 27.99 46 5991 522 1740222
Vertigo 180.87 27.99 75 5962 4338 1736406
Drug abuse 179.44 27.99 107 5930 13582 1727162
Liver disorder 179.08 27.99 80 5957 5556 1735188
Malaise 173.72 27.99 141 5896 29424 1711320
Altered state of consciousness 172.81 27.99 68 5969 3429 1737315
Dysphagia 172.26 27.99 94 5943 10074 1730670
Depressed level of consciousness 167.10 27.99 80 5957 6512 1734232
Dyskinesia 163.59 27.99 67 5970 3752 1736992
Cognitive disorder 155.47 27.99 67 5970 4263 1736481
Cardiac arrest 154.74 27.99 103 5934 15827 1724917
Face oedema 153.67 27.99 56 5981 2280 1738464
Disturbance in attention 153.61 27.99 66 5971 4168 1736576
Dermatitis exfoliative 151.37 27.99 50 5987 1511 1739233
Hypotonia 147.09 27.99 49 5988 1521 1739223
Toxic skin eruption 142.18 27.99 50 5987 1833 1738911
Platelet count decreased 141.86 27.99 99 5938 16424 1724320
Exposure during pregnancy 139.94 27.99 55 5982 2762 1737982
Irritability 139.75 27.99 67 5970 5465 1735279
Speech disorder 139.47 27.99 63 5974 4485 1736259
Erythema multiforme 138.11 27.99 48 5989 1698 1739046
Electroencephalogram abnormal 136.98 27.99 38 5999 622 1740122
Thrombocytopenia 136.73 27.99 107 5930 21142 1719602
Asthenia 133.06 27.99 130 5907 34540 1706204
Dysmorphism 130.96 27.99 33 6004 364 1740380
Premature baby 130.71 27.99 53 5984 2889 1737855
Pneumonia aspiration 130.65 27.99 63 5974 5203 1735541
Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion 130.39 27.99 46 5991 1702 1739042
Intentional self-injury 128.60 27.99 51 5986 2622 1738122
Trigeminal neuralgia 127.73 27.99 29 6008 196 1740548
Myoclonus 125.31 27.99 48 5989 2247 1738497
Partial seizures 125.19 27.99 36 6001 675 1740069
Human herpes virus 6 serology positive 124.81 27.99 23 6014 41 1740703
Therapeutic product cross-reactivity 123.33 27.99 29 6008 233 1740511
Human herpesvirus 6 infection 121.88 27.99 31 6006 356 1740388
Focal dyscognitive seizures 121.72 27.99 30 6007 300 1740444
Tremor 120.48 27.99 82 5955 13049 1727695
Hypospadias 118.44 27.99 33 6004 549 1740195
Psychomotor retardation 117.17 27.99 31 6006 420 1740324
Eosinophil count increased 116.55 27.99 40 5997 1361 1739383
Rash erythematous 115.48 27.99 53 5984 3912 1736832
Nausea 115.02 27.99 145 5892 51051 1689693
Blister 113.89 27.99 53 5984 4039 1736705
Insomnia 113.45 27.99 86 5951 16190 1724554
Drug resistance 112.70 27.99 49 5988 3181 1737563
Anxiety 112.57 27.99 84 5953 15443 1725301
Medication error 112.40 27.99 55 5982 4688 1736056
Lethargy 112.19 27.99 63 5974 7121 1733623
White blood cell count increased 111.16 27.99 63 5974 7249 1733495
Product complaint 111.09 27.99 45 5992 2445 1738299
Mania 110.70 27.99 43 5994 2090 1738654
Lymphocyte morphology abnormal 110.39 27.99 24 6013 129 1740615
Apathy 107.80 27.99 37 6000 1259 1739485
Bradycardia 106.75 27.99 70 5967 10464 1730280
Autism spectrum disorder 104.60 27.99 27 6010 330 1740414
Fatigue 103.34 27.99 137 5900 50644 1690100
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased 102.50 27.99 64 5973 8792 1731952
Hyperammonaemia 102.37 27.99 34 6003 1044 1739700
Hypotension 100.43 27.99 104 5933 29550 1711194
White blood cell count decreased 99.47 27.99 73 5964 13076 1727668
Hepatitis 98.45 27.99 51 5986 4904 1735840
Conjunctival hyperaemia 96.61 27.99 28 6009 540 1740204
Headache 96.20 27.99 109 5928 34267 1706477
Restlessness 96.11 27.99 48 5989 4273 1736471
Leukocytosis 95.95 27.99 45 5992 3488 1737256
Drug level decreased 92.38 27.99 31 6006 983 1739761
Blood sodium decreased 90.43 27.99 38 5999 2266 1738478
Mouth ulceration 89.72 27.99 35 6002 1720 1739024
Memory impairment 89.53 27.99 53 5984 6610 1734134
Anticonvulsant drug level above therapeutic 89.28 27.99 20 6017 126 1740618
Treatment noncompliance 87.72 27.99 48 5989 5153 1735591
Leukopenia 87.47 27.99 57 5980 8423 1732321
Hepatocellular injury 87.26 27.99 41 5996 3190 1737554
Cholestasis 85.32 27.99 42 5995 3623 1737121
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome 85.18 27.99 40 5997 3108 1737636
Hypogammaglobulinaemia 84.78 27.99 26 6011 613 1740131
Low birth weight baby 84.32 27.99 28 6009 859 1739885
Urticaria 83.74 27.99 64 5973 12177 1728567
Decreased eye contact 82.59 27.99 16 6021 42 1740702
Haemoglobin decreased 82.52 27.99 73 5964 17041 1723703
Sedation 82.06 27.99 40 5997 3377 1737367
Gastric lavage 81.61 27.99 14 6023 12 1740732
Cerebellar syndrome 80.83 27.99 24 6013 505 1740239
Respiratory failure 80.35 27.99 67 5970 14438 1726306
Red blood cell count decreased 79.18 27.99 40 5997 3646 1737098
Cough 79.13 27.99 75 5962 19122 1721622
Vision blurred 78.13 27.99 53 5984 8370 1732374
Accidental overdose 77.40 27.99 41 5996 4123 1736621
Anticonvulsant drug level decreased 77.36 27.99 20 6017 246 1740498
Psychomotor hyperactivity 76.90 27.99 32 6005 1861 1738883
Rash morbilliform 76.06 27.99 22 6015 421 1740323
Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy 74.34 27.99 17 6020 119 1740625
Coma scale abnormal 73.68 27.99 23 6014 576 1740168
Oppositional defiant disorder 73.65 27.99 15 6022 55 1740689
Cardio-respiratory arrest 73.42 27.99 53 5984 9240 1731504
Liver function test abnormal 72.90 27.99 44 5993 5682 1735062
Rash papular 72.56 27.99 30 6007 1716 1739028
Hepatosplenomegaly 72.29 27.99 23 6014 614 1740130
Depression 72.29 27.99 67 5970 16602 1724142
Encephalopathy 72.07 27.99 40 5997 4412 1736332
Dyspnoea 71.76 27.99 117 5920 51942 1688802
Neutropenia 70.82 27.99 69 5968 18191 1722553
Unresponsive to stimuli 70.62 27.99 40 5997 4589 1736155
Paraesthesia 70.05 27.99 54 5983 10397 1730347
Tachycardia 69.24 27.99 58 5979 12570 1728174
Skin lesion 68.99 27.99 34 6003 2938 1737806
Product substitution issue 68.65 27.99 35 6002 3251 1737493
Product use in unapproved indication 68.26 27.99 51 5986 9371 1731373
Skin test positive 68.09 27.99 16 6021 128 1740616
Psychotic disorder 67.34 27.99 40 5997 5016 1735728
Interstitial lung disease 66.96 27.99 51 5986 9645 1731099
Crying 66.95 27.99 27 6010 1448 1739296
Hepatomegaly 66.81 27.99 28 6009 1657 1739087
Blood creatinine increased 66.22 27.99 59 5978 13887 1726857
Therapeutic response unexpected 66.19 27.99 31 6006 2393 1738351
Pancytopenia 66.09 27.99 54 5983 11303 1729441
Maternal drugs affecting foetus 65.72 27.99 25 6012 1146 1739598
Haematocrit decreased 65.38 27.99 37 6000 4236 1736508
Multiple-drug resistance 65.01 27.99 18 6019 292 1740452
Eczema 64.32 27.99 30 6007 2294 1738450
Drug-induced liver injury 63.36 27.99 33 6004 3204 1737540
Asterixis 62.70 27.99 17 6020 254 1740490
Postictal paralysis 62.65 27.99 12 6025 29 1740715
Head injury 62.56 27.99 32 6005 2992 1737752
Oral mucosa erosion 62.17 27.99 16 6021 193 1740551
Dysmetria 61.43 27.99 13 6024 60 1740684
General physical health deterioration 61.29 27.99 55 5982 13063 1727681
Scab 60.98 27.99 21 6016 721 1740023
Drug level above therapeutic 60.30 27.99 19 6018 491 1740253
Hyperthermia 60.09 27.99 26 6011 1665 1739079
Bruxism 60.06 27.99 17 6020 300 1740444
Bone density decreased 59.95 27.99 17 6020 302 1740442
Blood cholesterol increased 59.66 27.99 31 6006 2995 1737749
Respiratory arrest 59.57 27.99 39 5998 5800 1734944
Blood urea increased 59.44 27.99 36 6001 4675 1736069
Bradyphrenia 59.29 27.99 20 6017 644 1740100
Delusion 59.27 27.99 28 6009 2203 1738541
Purpura 58.89 27.99 26 6011 1748 1738996
Poisoning 58.87 27.99 29 6008 2503 1738241
Rhabdomyolysis 58.85 27.99 50 5987 11040 1729704
Feeling abnormal 58.55 27.99 50 5987 11116 1729628
Roseolovirus test positive 58.21 27.99 11 6026 24 1740720
Foetal anticonvulsant syndrome 57.75 27.99 15 6022 188 1740556
Mood altered 57.51 27.99 27 6010 2095 1738649
Aplastic anaemia 57.30 27.99 20 6017 715 1740029
Hypersensitivity 57.30 27.99 48 5989 10396 1730348
Pain 55.68 27.99 73 5964 26584 1714160
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome 54.95 27.99 20 6017 809 1739935
Sydenham's chorea 54.72 27.99 9 6028 4 1740740
Tubulointerstitial nephritis 54.60 27.99 29 6008 2929 1737815
Disorientation 54.51 27.99 36 6001 5433 1735311
Conjunctivitis 54.48 27.99 24 6013 1605 1739139
Tonic convulsion 54.42 27.99 15 6022 239 1740505
Renal impairment 54.33 27.99 50 5987 12264 1728480
Depressed mood 54.07 27.99 29 6008 2987 1737757
Bundle branch block right 53.45 27.99 22 6015 1243 1739501
Nervousness 53.24 27.99 26 6011 2201 1738543
Aphasia 53.03 27.99 30 6007 3431 1737313
Shock 53.01 27.99 32 6005 4129 1736615
Lip erosion 52.91 27.99 13 6024 128 1740616
Head circumference abnormal 52.86 27.99 10 6027 22 1740722
Hepatic enzyme increased 52.82 27.99 38 5999 6583 1734161
Dysstasia 52.78 27.99 24 6013 1730 1739014
Visual impairment 52.63 27.99 37 6000 6181 1734563
Atrioventricular block first degree 52.58 27.99 20 6017 916 1739828
Personality change 52.44 27.99 21 6016 1105 1739639
Transaminases increased 52.18 27.99 31 6006 3886 1736858
Syncope 52.04 27.99 52 5985 14117 1726627
Lymphocytic infiltration 51.89 27.99 14 6023 205 1740539
Hyperhidrosis 51.80 27.99 49 5988 12439 1728305
Anticonvulsant drug level below therapeutic 51.52 27.99 13 6024 144 1740600
Microcephaly 51.28 27.99 13 6024 147 1740597
Neurodevelopmental disorder 50.63 27.99 10 6027 30 1740714
Brain oedema 50.60 27.99 25 6012 2171 1738573
Suicidal ideation 50.58 27.99 41 5996 8477 1732267
Mucosal erosion 50.34 27.99 13 6024 159 1740585
Neonatal pneumonia 50.14 27.99 10 6027 32 1740712
Epidermal necrosis 49.90 27.99 13 6024 165 1740579
Musculoskeletal stiffness 49.81 27.99 35 6002 5841 1734903
Personality disorder 49.78 27.99 14 6023 241 1740503
Agranulocytosis 49.46 27.99 29 6008 3547 1737197
Decreased appetite 49.26 27.99 65 5972 23806 1716938
Hepatic adenoma 49.21 27.99 9 6028 15 1740729
Anger 48.82 27.99 26 6011 2640 1738104
Homicidal ideation 48.54 27.99 17 6020 614 1740130
Visual field defect 48.49 27.99 20 6017 1136 1739608
Amnesia 48.26 27.99 32 6005 4859 1735885
Hyporeflexia 48.11 27.99 15 6022 374 1740370
Dyspraxia 47.85 27.99 11 6026 79 1740665
Metabolic acidosis 47.72 27.99 33 6004 5369 1735375
Therapeutic product effect incomplete 47.46 27.99 33 6004 5415 1735329
Euphoric mood 47.27 27.99 18 6019 827 1739917
Micrognathia 47.14 27.99 11 6026 85 1740659
Paraplegia 47.08 27.99 16 6021 527 1740217
Electrocardiogram QT prolonged 46.94 27.99 33 6004 5512 1735232
Dystonia 46.61 27.99 23 6014 1991 1738753
Oropharyngeal pain 46.28 27.99 31 6006 4787 1735957
Product use issue 46.19 27.99 39 5998 8532 1732212
Sleep disorder 46.04 27.99 29 6008 4034 1736710
Cyanosis 45.95 27.99 25 6012 2649 1738095
Swelling face 45.86 27.99 30 6007 4453 1736291
Apgar score low 45.84 27.99 13 6024 231 1740513
Neonatal hypotension 45.64 27.99 10 6027 56 1740688
Loss of personal independence in daily activities 45.64 27.99 24 6013 2375 1738369
Altered pitch perception 45.13 27.99 7 6030 0 1740744
Congenital cystic lung 45.08 27.99 9 6028 29 1740715
Visual acuity reduced 44.68 27.99 28 6009 3860 1736884
Papule 44.58 27.99 16 6021 621 1740123
Respiratory distress 44.37 27.99 31 6006 5126 1735618
Respiratory depression 44.23 27.99 23 6014 2224 1738520
Bone metabolism disorder 44.18 27.99 9 6028 33 1740711
Muscular weakness 44.00 27.99 41 5996 10208 1730536
Developmental delay 44.00 27.99 15 6022 499 1740245
Disseminated intravascular coagulation 44.00 27.99 27 6010 3587 1737157
Bradykinesia 43.94 27.99 15 6022 501 1740243
Hallucination, visual 43.89 27.99 24 6013 2568 1738176
Oral disorder 43.50 27.99 16 6021 667 1740077
Off label use 42.96 27.99 79 5958 38492 1702252
Hyperexplexia 42.64 27.99 7 6030 3 1740741
Congenital anomaly 42.63 27.99 14 6023 414 1740330
Tonic clonic movements 42.54 27.99 12 6025 209 1740535
Cerebellar ataxia 42.48 27.99 12 6025 210 1740534
Lymphocytosis 42.47 27.99 14 6023 419 1740325
Nikolsky's sign 42.33 27.99 10 6027 82 1740662
Arrhythmia 42.29 27.99 32 6005 5984 1734760
Hypocalcaemia 42.09 27.99 25 6012 3131 1737613
Rales 41.73 27.99 17 6020 935 1739809
Mental impairment 41.16 27.99 21 6016 1952 1738792
Pneumonia 41.02 27.99 86 5951 46096 1694648
Salivary hypersecretion 40.80 27.99 19 6018 1446 1739298
Eye pain 40.63 27.99 22 6015 2309 1738435
Lymphopenia 40.56 27.99 21 6016 2012 1738732
Skin erosion 40.43 27.99 13 6024 359 1740385
Poisoning deliberate 40.24 27.99 16 6021 826 1739918
Cell death 40.19 27.99 13 6024 366 1740378
Heart rate increased 40.05 27.99 32 6005 6478 1734266
Gingival hypertrophy 39.92 27.99 13 6024 374 1740370
Pigmentation disorder 39.91 27.99 14 6023 508 1740236
Plasmapheresis 39.73 27.99 9 6028 60 1740684
Osteoporosis 39.72 27.99 19 6018 1536 1739208
Hypoaesthesia 39.65 27.99 38 5999 9797 1730947
Hallucination 39.61 27.99 35 6002 8135 1732609
Maternal exposure during breast feeding 39.57 27.99 13 6024 385 1740359
Muscle rigidity 39.51 27.99 20 6017 1828 1738916
Blood bilirubin increased 39.22 27.99 31 6006 6179 1734565
Emotional disorder 39.18 27.99 17 6020 1095 1739649
Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis 39.04 27.99 17 6020 1105 1739639
Abdominal pain 38.99 27.99 55 5982 21435 1719309
Pressure of speech 38.97 27.99 10 6027 119 1740625
Trismus 38.87 27.99 14 6023 549 1740195
Encephalitis 38.81 27.99 17 6020 1121 1739623
Skin hyperpigmentation 38.68 27.99 14 6023 557 1740187
Fear 38.55 27.99 18 6019 1378 1739366
Acute kidney injury 38.17 27.99 71 5966 34873 1705871
Loose associations 38.15 27.99 7 6030 12 1740732
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome 37.81 27.99 36 6001 9206 1731538
Gingival atrophy 37.79 27.99 7 6030 13 1740731
Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder 37.79 27.99 7 6030 13 1740731
Pleural effusion 37.54 27.99 39 5998 11071 1729673
Photophobia 37.49 27.99 17 6020 1217 1739527
Diarrhoea 37.47 27.99 91 5946 53761 1686983
Meningocele 37.45 27.99 7 6030 14 1740730
Feeling of despair 37.28 27.99 11 6026 226 1740518
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder 37.23 27.99 13 6024 465 1740279
Hypertension 37.11 27.99 51 5986 19397 1721347
Muscle twitching 37.06 27.99 19 6018 1783 1738961
Splenomegaly 36.92 27.99 20 6017 2100 1738644
Acute respiratory distress syndrome 36.90 27.99 24 6013 3527 1737217
Therapy non-responder 36.85 27.99 30 6007 6236 1734508
Hyperkinesia 36.84 27.99 11 6026 236 1740508
Low set ears 36.77 27.99 9 6028 87 1740657
Gingival disorder 36.70 27.99 11 6026 239 1740505
Mental disorder 36.56 27.99 22 6015 2821 1737923
Road traffic accident 36.52 27.99 24 6013 3589 1737155
Hepatic failure 36.28 27.99 29 6008 5874 1734870
Diabetic neuropathy 36.24 27.99 13 6024 504 1740240
Motor dysfunction 36.17 27.99 16 6021 1080 1739664
Cytomegalovirus test positive 36.16 27.99 13 6024 507 1740237
Drug withdrawal syndrome 36.15 27.99 26 6011 4499 1736245
Antisocial behaviour 36.15 27.99 9 6028 94 1740650
Choreoathetosis 36.06 27.99 10 6027 163 1740581
Hypoxia 36.02 27.99 29 6008 5934 1734810
Facial pain 35.76 27.99 12 6025 380 1740364
Xanthelasma 35.62 27.99 6 6031 4 1740740
Guillain-Barre syndrome 35.61 27.99 15 6022 898 1739846
Neutrophil count decreased 35.52 27.99 29 6008 6052 1734692
Genital erosion 35.49 27.99 8 6029 52 1740692
Lung disorder 35.47 27.99 27 6010 5092 1735652
Pharyngitis 35.46 27.99 16 6021 1132 1739612
Distractibility 35.40 27.99 9 6028 103 1740641
Multi-organ disorder 35.17 27.99 11 6026 277 1740467
Body temperature increased 35.16 27.99 21 6016 2656 1738088
Peripheral coldness 35.06 27.99 16 6021 1162 1739582
Circulatory collapse 34.97 27.99 23 6014 3444 1737300
Intellectual disability 34.83 27.99 10 6027 186 1740558
Prominent epicanthal folds 34.51 27.99 7 6030 25 1740719
Blood osmolarity decreased 34.13 27.99 9 6028 120 1740624
PO2 decreased 34.03 27.99 11 6026 309 1740435
Pulmonary embolism 34.02 27.99 40 5997 13019 1727725
Thinking abnormal 33.42 27.99 16 6021 1296 1739448
Cholinergic syndrome 33.40 27.99 9 6028 131 1740613
Mydriasis 33.28 27.99 16 6021 1308 1739436
Ammonia increased 33.21 27.99 14 6023 840 1739904
Oedema peripheral 33.06 27.99 43 5994 15507 1725237
Oculomucocutaneous syndrome 32.91 27.99 8 6029 75 1740669
Normochromic normocytic anaemia 32.84 27.99 13 6024 663 1740081
Stress 32.83 27.99 20 6017 2621 1738123
Catatonia 32.73 27.99 14 6023 871 1739873
Inflammation 32.65 27.99 22 6015 3428 1737316
Incorrect dose administered 32.49 27.99 30 6007 7379 1733365
Dermatitis exfoliative generalised 32.35 27.99 11 6026 363 1740381
Delirium 32.33 27.99 28 6009 6334 1734410
Hemiparesis 32.19 27.99 20 6017 2714 1738030
Body height below normal 32.18 27.99 8 6029 83 1740661
Major depression 32.17 27.99 13 6024 700 1740044
Oral pain 32.11 27.99 16 6021 1414 1739330
Potentiating drug interaction 32.10 27.99 13 6024 704 1740040
Tachyarrhythmia 32.02 27.99 12 6025 527 1740217
Product prescribing error 31.89 27.99 19 6018 2391 1738353
Mobility decreased 31.88 27.99 23 6014 3997 1736747
Hypothermia 31.87 27.99 17 6020 1731 1739013
Simple partial seizures 31.83 27.99 8 6029 87 1740657
Language disorder 31.82 27.99 10 6027 256 1740488
B-lymphocyte count decreased 31.75 27.99 8 6029 88 1740656
Pupillary reflex impaired 31.65 27.99 11 6026 388 1740356
Cerebral atrophy 31.55 27.99 13 6024 736 1740008
Thirst 31.36 27.99 15 6022 1212 1739532
Communication disorder 31.28 27.99 11 6026 402 1740342
Mucosal ulceration 31.27 27.99 9 6028 169 1740575
Respiratory disorder neonatal 31.21 27.99 10 6027 273 1740471
Cytomegalovirus infection 31.12 27.99 21 6016 3280 1737464
Suspiciousness 30.96 27.99 8 6029 98 1740646
Eating disorder 30.96 27.99 15 6022 1247 1739497
Hypothyroidism 30.83 27.99 19 6018 2541 1738203
Central nervous system lesion 30.77 27.99 14 6023 1010 1739734
Small for dates baby 30.75 27.99 12 6025 589 1740155
Torticollis 30.54 27.99 10 6027 293 1740451
Gaze palsy 30.50 27.99 10 6027 294 1740450
Eyelid oedema 30.40 27.99 15 6022 1298 1739446
Sinus bradycardia 30.26 27.99 17 6020 1916 1738828
Oedema 30.20 27.99 28 6009 6920 1733824
Incoherent 30.20 27.99 13 6024 821 1739923
Asthma 29.93 27.99 24 6013 4880 1735864
Hypercapnic coma 29.90 27.99 6 6031 20 1740724
Parkinsonism 29.80 27.99 15 6022 1354 1739390
Atrioventricular block 29.78 27.99 15 6022 1356 1739388
Blood urea decreased 29.75 27.99 9 6028 202 1740542
Congenital nail disorder 29.67 27.99 6 6031 21 1740723
Laryngeal pain 29.52 27.99 12 6025 656 1740088
Blood immunoglobulin G decreased 29.47 27.99 8 6029 120 1740624
Herpes virus infection 29.38 27.99 11 6026 482 1740262
Cluster headache 29.17 27.99 8 6029 125 1740619
Physical deconditioning 29.15 27.99 7 6030 62 1740682
Sinus node dysfunction 29.08 27.99 12 6025 682 1740062
Surgery 28.89 27.99 19 6018 2844 1737900
Rash pustular 28.83 27.99 14 6023 1170 1739574
Speech disorder developmental 28.80 27.99 9 6028 226 1740518
Sinus arrest 28.74 27.99 10 6027 354 1740390
Electrolyte imbalance 28.69 27.99 15 6022 1466 1739278
Affective disorder 28.69 27.99 12 6025 706 1740038
Maternal exposure during pregnancy 28.65 27.99 12 6025 708 1740036
Blood glucose increased 28.53 27.99 33 6004 10551 1730193
Loss of libido 28.53 27.99 12 6025 716 1740028
Blood potassium increased 28.51 27.99 18 6019 2512 1738232
Gastrointestinal disorder 28.48 27.99 23 6014 4725 1736019
Sepsis 28.44 27.99 45 5992 19393 1721351
Cerebrovascular accident 28.44 27.99 43 5994 17823 1722921
Affect lability 28.42 27.99 13 6024 949 1739795
Staring 28.42 27.99 10 6027 366 1740378
Dermatitis bullous 28.38 27.99 14 6023 1210 1739534
Rash pruritic 28.38 27.99 22 6015 4260 1736484
Weight decreased 28.36 27.99 49 5988 22704 1718040
Feelings of worthlessness 28.21 27.99 7 6030 72 1740672
Disease recurrence 28.17 27.99 18 6019 2564 1738180
Hepatic steatosis 28.16 27.99 18 6019 2566 1738178
Jaundice neonatal 28.11 27.99 9 6028 245 1740499

Pharmacologic Action:

SourceCodeDescription
ATC N03AF01 NERVOUS SYSTEM
ANTIEPILEPTICS
ANTIEPILEPTICS
Carboxamide derivatives
FDA PE N0000008486 Decreased Central Nervous System Disorganized Electrical Activity
FDA EPC N0000175751 Mood Stabilizer
FDA MoA N0000185506 Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inducers
FDA MoA N0000191266 Cytochrome P450 1A2 Inducers
FDA MoA N0000187064 Cytochrome P450 2B6 Inducers
FDA MoA N0000185507 Cytochrome P450 2C9 Inducers
FDA MoA N0000185607 Cytochrome P450 2C19 Inducers
MeSH PA D000700 Analgesics
MeSH PA D018712 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
CHEBI has role CHEBI:88188 drug allergen
CHEBI has role CHEBI:35481 non-narcotic analgesic
CHEBI has role CHEBI:35480 analgesic
CHEBI has role CHEBI:35477 antimanic drug
CHEBI has role CHEBI:35623 anticonvulsant
CHEBI has role CHEBI:64370 glutamate transporter activator
MeSH PA D000927 Anticonvulsants
MeSH PA D018692 Antimanic Agents
MeSH PA D002317 Cardiovascular Agents
MeSH PA D002491 Central Nervous System Agents
MeSH PA D002492 Central Nervous System Depressants
MeSH PA D065701 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
MeSH PA D049990 Membrane Transport Modulators
MeSH PA D065606 Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances
MeSH PA D018373 Peripheral Nervous System Agents
MeSH PA D011619 Psychotropic Drugs
MeSH PA D018689 Sensory System Agents
MeSH PA D026941 Sodium Channel Blockers
MeSH PA D014149 Tranquilizing Agents

Drug Use (View source of the data)

DiseaseRelationSNOMED_IDDOID
Mixed bipolar I disorder indication 16506000 DOID:3312
Trigeminal neuralgia indication 31681005 DOID:12098
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia indication 43763009 DOID:14423
Tonic-clonic seizure indication 54200006
Epilepsy indication 84757009 DOID:1826
Bipolar disorder in remission indication 85248005
Bipolar affective disorder, current episode manic indication 191618007
Localization-related epilepsy indication 230381009 DOID:2234
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome indication 230418006
Tonic-clonic epilepsy indication 352818000 DOID:7725
Epilepsy characterized by intractable complex partial seizures indication 442481002
Simple partial seizure indication 117891000119100
Mixed Epilepsy indication
Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus off-label use 45369008 DOID:12388
Bipolar affective disorder, current episode depression off-label use 191627008 DOID:3312
Neuropathic pain off-label use 247398009
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder off-label use 406506008
Prevention of Seizures following Cranial Trauma or Surgery off-label use
Rapid Cycling Bipolar Affective Disorder off-label use
Ocular hypertension contraindication 4210003 DOID:9282
Suicidal thoughts contraindication 6471006
Hypercholesterolemia contraindication 13644009
Agranulocytosis contraindication 17182001 DOID:12987
Mood swings contraindication 18963009
Glaucoma contraindication 23986001 DOID:1686
Complete atrioventricular block contraindication 27885002
Depressive disorder contraindication 35489007
Hypertensive disorder contraindication 38341003 DOID:10763
Conduction disorder of the heart contraindication 44808001
Chronic heart failure contraindication 48447003
Syndrome of inappropriate vasopressin secretion contraindication 55004003 DOID:3401
Acute nephropathy contraindication 58574008
Absence seizure contraindication 79631006
Hyponatremia contraindication 89627008
Kidney disease contraindication 90708001 DOID:557
Pancytopenia contraindication 127034005 DOID:12450
Impaired renal function disorder contraindication 197663003
Non-infective meningitis contraindication 230155003
Acute intermittent porphyria contraindication 234422006 DOID:3890
Disease of liver contraindication 235856003 DOID:409
Retention of urine contraindication 267064002
Anemia contraindication 271737000 DOID:2355
Pregnancy, function contraindication 289908002
Thrombocytopenic disorder contraindication 302215000 DOID:1588
Neutropenic disorder contraindication 303011007 DOID:1227
Aplastic anemia contraindication 306058006 DOID:12449
Bone marrow depression contraindication 307762000
Disorder of coronary artery contraindication 414024009
HLA-B 1502 Positive Status contraindication
Carbamazepine Toxicity contraindication

Acid dissociation constants calculated using MoKa v3.0.0

Dissociation levelDissociation constantType (acidic/basic)
pKa1 13.13 acidic

Orange Book patent data (new drug applications)

Formulation strengthTrade nameApplicantApplication numberApproval dateTypeDose formRoutePatent numberPatent expiration datePatent use
100MG EQUETRO VALIDUS PHARMS N021710 Dec. 10, 2004 RX CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE ORAL 6977253 May 19, 2024 THE RECOMMENDED INITIAL DOSE OF EQUETRO IS 400MG/DAY GIVEN IN DIVIDED DOSES, TWICE DAILY. THE DOSE SHOULD BE ADJUSTED IN 200MG DAILY INCREMENTS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMAL CLINICAL RESPONSE.
200MG EQUETRO VALIDUS PHARMS N021710 Dec. 10, 2004 RX CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE ORAL 6977253 May 19, 2024 THE RECOMMENDED INITIAL DOSE OF EQUETRO IS 400MG/DAY GIVEN IN DIVIDED DOSES, TWICE DAILY. THE DOSE SHOULD BE ADJUSTED IN 200MG DAILY INCREMENTS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMAL CLINICAL RESPONSE.
300MG EQUETRO VALIDUS PHARMS N021710 Dec. 10, 2004 RX CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE ORAL 6977253 May 19, 2024 THE RECOMMENDED INITIAL DOSE OF EQUETRO IS 400MG/DAY GIVEN IN DIVIDED DOSES, TWICE DAILY. THE DOSE SHOULD BE ADJUSTED IN 200MG DAILY INCREMENTS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMAL CLINICAL RESPONSE.
200MG/20ML (10MG/ML) CARNEXIV LUNDBECK PHARMS LLC N206030 Oct. 7, 2016 DISCN SOLUTION INTRAVENOUS 9629797 Nov. 10, 2028 REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR ORAL CARBAMAZEPINE IN ADULTS WITH GENERALIZED TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURES
200MG/20ML (10MG/ML) CARNEXIV LUNDBECK PHARMS LLC N206030 Oct. 7, 2016 DISCN SOLUTION INTRAVENOUS 9629797 Nov. 10, 2028 REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR ORAL CARBAMAZEPINE IN ADULTS WITH MIXED SEIZURE PATTERNS THAT INCLUDE PARTIAL SEIZURES WITH COMPLEX SYMPTOMATOLOGY, GENERALIZED TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURES, OR OTHER PARTIAL OR GENERALIZED SEIZURES
200MG/20ML (10MG/ML) CARNEXIV LUNDBECK PHARMS LLC N206030 Oct. 7, 2016 DISCN SOLUTION INTRAVENOUS 9629797 Nov. 10, 2028 REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR ORAL CARBAMAZEPINE IN ADULTS WITH PARTIAL SEIZURES WITH COMPLEX SYMPTOMATOLOGY

Orange Book exclusivity data (new drug applications)

Formulation strengthTrade nameApplicantApplication numberApproval dateTypeDose formRouteExclusivity dateDescription
200MG/20ML (10MG/ML) CARNEXIV LUNDBECK PHARMS LLC N206030 Oct. 7, 2016 DISCN SOLUTION INTRAVENOUS Oct. 7, 2023 REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR ORAL CARBAMAZEPINE FORMULATIONS, WHEN ORAL ADMINISTRATION IS TEMPORARILY NOT FEASIBLE, IN ADULTS WITH THE FOLLOWING SEIZURE TYPES: PARTIAL WITH COMPLEX SYMPTOMOLOGY, GENERALIZED CLONIC-TONIC, AND MIXED

Bioactivity Summary:

TargetClassPharosUniProtActionTypeActivity value
(-log[M])
Mechanism
action
Bioact sourceMoA source
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha Ion channel BLOCKER IC50 4.66 CHEMBL CHEMBL
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha Ion channel BLOCKER Ki 4.28 CHEMBL CHEMBL
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha Ion channel BLOCKER WOMBAT-PK CHEMBL
Histamine H1 receptor GPCR Ki 4.13 WOMBAT-PK
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor; alpha2/beta4 Ion channel IC50 4.31 WOMBAT-PK
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2 Nuclear hormone receptor WOMBAT-PK
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter Transporter Kd 4.49 WOMBAT-PK
GABA-A receptor alpha-1/beta-2/gamma-2 Ion channel WOMBAT-PK

External reference:

IDSource
D002220 MESH_DESCRIPTOR_UI
4017873 VUID
N0000146226 NUI
C0006949 UMLSCUI
D00252 KEGG_DRUG
33CM23913M UNII
1836 INN_ID
85756-57-6 SECONDARY_CAS_RN
40820003 SNOMEDCT_US
4017873 VANDF
001634 NDDF
2002 RXNORM
513 MMSL
d00058 MMSL
387222003 SNOMEDCT_US
4350 MMSL
2554 PUBCHEM_CID
CHEBI:3387 CHEBI
CHEMBL108 ChEMBL_ID
DB00564 DRUGBANK_ID
5339 IUPHAR_LIGAND_ID

Pharmaceutical products:

ProductCategoryIngredientsNDCFormQuantityRouteMarketingLabel
Tegretol HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0078-0508 SUSPENSION 100 mg ORAL NDA 24 sections
Tegretol HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0078-0509 TABLET 200 mg ORAL NDA 24 sections
Tegretol HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0078-0510 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE 100 mg ORAL NDA 24 sections
Tegretol HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0078-0511 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE 200 mg ORAL NDA 24 sections
Tegretol HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0078-0512 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE 400 mg ORAL NDA 24 sections
Epitol HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0093-0090 TABLET 200 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0093-0109 TABLET 200 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0093-0778 TABLET, CHEWABLE 100 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0121-0862 SUSPENSION 100 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0121-1724 SUSPENSION 200 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0615-3505 TABLET 200 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
CARBAMAZEPINE HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0615-4515 TABLET 100 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0615-8125 TABLET, CHEWABLE 100 mg ORAL ANDA 16 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0781-5987 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE 200 mg ORAL NDA authorized generic 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0781-5988 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE 400 mg ORAL NDA authorized generic 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0781-8016 TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE 100 mg ORAL NDA authorized generic 15 sections
CARBAMAZEPINE HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0904-3854 TABLET, CHEWABLE 100 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
CARBAMAZEPINE HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 0904-6172 TABLET 200 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
CARBAMAZEPINE HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 13668-268 TABLET 200 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
CARBAMAZEPINE HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 13668-271 TABLET, CHEWABLE 100 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
CARBAMAZEPINE HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 16590-475 TABLET 200 mg ORAL ANDA 14 sections
CARBAMAZEPINE HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 17856-0029 SUSPENSION 100 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 17856-0407 CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE 100 mg ORAL NDA AUTHORIZED GENERIC 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 17856-4047 SUSPENSION 100 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 21695-724 TABLET 200 mg ORAL ANDA 13 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 29033-004 CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE 300 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 29033-019 CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE 100 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
Carbamazepine HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 29033-020 CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE 200 mg ORAL ANDA 15 sections
EQUETRO HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 30698-419 CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE 100 mg ORAL NDA 19 sections
EQUETRO HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL 1 30698-421 CAPSULE, EXTENDED RELEASE 200 mg ORAL NDA 19 sections