Midostaurin is a small molecule that inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. In vitro biochemical or cellular assays have shown that midostaurin or its major human active metabolites CGP62221 and CGP52421 inhibit the activity of wild type FLT3, FLT3 mutant kinases (ITD and TKD), KIT (wild type and D816V mutant), PDGFR-alfa/beta, VEGFR2, as well as members of the serine/threonine kinase PKC (protein kinase C) family. Midostaurin demonstrated the ability to inhibit FLT3 receptor signaling and cell proliferation, and it induced apoptosis in leukemic cells expressing ITD and TKD mutant FLT3 receptors or overexpressing wild type FLT3 and PDGF receptors. Midostaurin also demonstrated the ability to inhibit KIT signaling, cell proliferation and histamine release and induce apoptosis in mast cells.
Rucaparib is an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes, including PARP-1, PARP-2, and PARP-3, which play a role in DNA repair. In vitro studies have shown that rucaparib-induced cytotoxicity may involve inhibition of PARP enzymatic activity and increased formation of PARP-DNA complexes resulting in DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell death. Increased rucaparib-induced cytotoxicity was observed in tumor cell lines with deficiencies in BRCA1/2 and other DNA repair genes. Rucaparib has been shown to decrease tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of human cancer with or without deficiencies in BRCA.
An indole and pyrrole derivative that inhibits VEGFR-2 and PDGFR BETA RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES. It is used as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS, and for treatment of advanced or metastatic RENAL CELL CARCINOMA.