a CD30-directed antibody-drug conjugate consisting of three components: the chimeric IgG1 antibody cAC10, specific for human CD30, the microtubule disrupting agent MMAE, and a protease-cleavable linker that covalently attaches MMAE to cAC10
a microtubule inhibitor, cabazitaxel binds to tubulin and promotes its assembly into microtubules while simultaneously inhibiting disassembly. This leads to the stabilization of microtubules, which results in the inhibition of mitotic and interphase cellular functions
Enfortumab vedotin-ejfv is an ADC. The antibody is a human IgG1 directed against Nectin-4, an adhesion protein located on the surface of cells. The small molecule, MMAE, is a microtubule-disrupting agent, attached to the antibody via a protease-cleavable linker. Nonclinical data suggest that the anticancer activity of enfortumab vedotin-ejfv is due to the binding of the ADC to Nectin-4-expressing cells, followed by internalization of the ADC-Nectin-4 complex, and the release of MMAE via proteolytic cleavage. Release of MMAE disrupts the microtubule network within the cell, subsequently inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death.
Eribulin inhibits the growth phase of microtubules without affecting the shortening phase and sequesters tubulin into nonproductive aggregates. Eribulin exerts its effects via a tubulin-based antimitotic mechanism leading to G2/M cell-cycle block, disruption of mitotic spindles, and, ultimately, apoptotic cell death after prolonged mitotic blockage. In addition, eribulin treatment of human breast cancer cells caused changes in morphology and gene expression as well as decreased migration and invasiveness in vitro. In mouse xenograft models of human breast cancer, eribulin treatment was associated with increased vascular perfusion and permeability in the tumor cores, resulting in reduced tumor hypoxia, and changes in the expression of genes in tumor specimens associated with a change in phenotype.
Ixabepilone is a semi-synthetic analog of epothilone B. Ixabepilone binds directly to beta-tubulin subunits on microtubules, leading to suppression of microtubule dynamics. Ixabepilone suppresses the dynamic instability of alphaBeta-II and alphaBeta-III microtubules. Ixabepilone possesses low in vitro susceptibility to multiple tumor resistance mechanisms including efflux transporters, such as MRP-1 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Ixabepilone blocks cells in the mitotic phase of the cell division cycle, leading to cell death.
Polatuzumab vedotin-piiq is a CD79b-directed antibody-drug conjugate with activity against dividing B cells. The small molecule, MMAE is an anti-mitotic agent covalently attached to the antibody via a cleavable linker. The monoclonal antibody binds to CD79b, a B-cell specific surface protein, which is a component of the B-cell receptor. Upon binding CD79b, polatuzumab vedotin-piiq is internalized, and the linker is cleaved by lysosomal proteases to enable intracellular delivery of MMAE. MMAE binds to microtubules and kills dividing cells by inhibiting cell division and inducing apoptosis
Immunotoxin that consists of humanized monoclonal anti-HER2 antibody TRASTUZUMAB covalently linked to anti-microtubule agent MAYTANSINOID DM1 for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in patients who previously received trastuzumab and a TAXANES, separately or in combination.
A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.