Midostaurin is a small molecule that inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. In vitro biochemical or cellular assays have shown that midostaurin or its major human active metabolites CGP62221 and CGP52421 inhibit the activity of wild type FLT3, FLT3 mutant kinases (ITD and TKD), KIT (wild type and D816V mutant), PDGFR-alfa/beta, VEGFR2, as well as members of the serine/threonine kinase PKC (protein kinase C) family. Midostaurin demonstrated the ability to inhibit FLT3 receptor signaling and cell proliferation, and it induced apoptosis in leukemic cells expressing ITD and TKD mutant FLT3 receptors or overexpressing wild type FLT3 and PDGF receptors. Midostaurin also demonstrated the ability to inhibit KIT signaling, cell proliferation and histamine release and induce apoptosis in mast cells.
Neratinib is a kinase inhibitor that irreversibly binds to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), and HER4. In vitro, neratinib reduces EGFR and HER2 autophosphorylation, downstream MAPK and AKT signaling pathways, and showed antitumor activity in EGFR and/or HER2 expressing carcinoma cell lines. Neratinib human metabolites M3, M6, M7 and M11 inhibited the activity of EGFR, HER2 and HER4 in vitro. In vivo, oral administration of neratinib inhibited tumor growth in mouse xenograft models with tumor cell lines expressing HER2 and EGFR.
Palbociclib is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6. Cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 are downstream of signaling pathways which lead to cellular proliferation. In vitro, palbociclib reduced cellular proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines by blocking progression of the cell from G1 into S phase of the cell cycle. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines with the combination of palbociclib and antiestrogens leads to decreased retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation resulting in reduced E2F expression and signaling, and increased growth arrest compared to treatment with each drug alone. In vitro treatment of ER-positive breast cancer cell lines with the combination of palbociclib and antiestrogens led to increased cell senescence compared to each drug alone, which was sustained for up to 6 days following palbociclib removal and was greater if antiestrogen treatment was continued. In vivo studies using a patient-derived ER-positive breast cancer xenograft model demonstrated that the combination of palbociclib and letrozole increased the inhibition of Rb phosphorylation, downstream signaling, and tumor growth compared to each drug alone.
a kinase inhibitor, inhibits Janus Associated Kinases (JAKs) JAK1 and JAK2 which mediate the signaling of a number of cytokines and growth factors that are important for hematopoiesis and immune function. Although some small studies have suggested possibility of benefit from ruxolitinib in patients with COVID-19, it is not recommended the use of JAK inhibitors other than baricitinib for the treatment of COVID-19.
An indole and pyrrole derivative that inhibits VEGFR-2 and PDGFR BETA RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES. It is used as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS, and for treatment of advanced or metastatic RENAL CELL CARCINOMA.
Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor. JAKs are intracellular enzymes which transmit signals arising from cytokine or growth factor-receptor interactions on the cellular membrane to influence cellular processes of hematopoiesis and immune cell function. Within the signaling pathway, JAKs phosphorylate and activate Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) which modulate intracellular activity including gene expression. Tofacitinib modulates the signaling pathway at the point of JAKs, preventing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs.
In vitro studies have shown that vandetanib inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR and VEGFR families, RET, BRK, TIE2, and members of the EPH receptor and Src kinase families. These receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in both normal cellular function and pathologic processes such as oncogenesis, metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, and maintenance of the tumor microenvironment. In addition, the N-desmethyl metabolite of the drug, representing 7 to 17.1% of vandetanib exposure, has similar inhibitory activity to the parent compound for VEGF receptors (KDR and Flt-1) and EGFR. In vitro, vandetanib inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in tumor cells and endothelial cells and VEGF-stimulated tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in endothelial cells. In vivo, vandetanib administration reduced tumor cell-induced angiogenesis, tumor vessel permeability, and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models of cancer.