Voxelotor is a hemoglobin S (HbS) polymerization inhibitor that binds to HbS with a 1:1 stoichiometry and exhibits preferential partitioning to red blood cells (RBCs). By increasing the affinity of Hb for oxygen, voxelotor demonstrates dose-dependent inhibition of HbS polymerization. Nonclinical studies suggest that voxelotor may inhibit RBC sickling, improve RBC deformability, and reduce whole blood viscosity.
A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970). In March 2020, FDA issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-10. EUA was revoked in June 2020. Data from various published randomized, controlled clinical trials and retrospective, cohort studies have not substantiated initial reports of efficacy of 4-aminoquinoline antimalarials for treatment of COVID-19.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.