A tyrosine kinase inhibitor and ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT that inhibits the BCR-ABL kinase created by chromosome rearrangements in CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA and ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA, as well as PDG-derived tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Midostaurin is a small molecule that inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. In vitro biochemical or cellular assays have shown that midostaurin or its major human active metabolites CGP62221 and CGP52421 inhibit the activity of wild type FLT3, FLT3 mutant kinases (ITD and TKD), KIT (wild type and D816V mutant), PDGFR-alfa/beta, VEGFR2, as well as members of the serine/threonine kinase PKC (protein kinase C) family. Midostaurin demonstrated the ability to inhibit FLT3 receptor signaling and cell proliferation, and it induced apoptosis in leukemic cells expressing ITD and TKD mutant FLT3 receptors or overexpressing wild type FLT3 and PDGF receptors. Midostaurin also demonstrated the ability to inhibit KIT signaling, cell proliferation and histamine release and induce apoptosis in mast cells.
Neratinib is a kinase inhibitor that irreversibly binds to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), and HER4. In vitro, neratinib reduces EGFR and HER2 autophosphorylation, downstream MAPK and AKT signaling pathways, and showed antitumor activity in EGFR and/or HER2 expressing carcinoma cell lines. Neratinib human metabolites M3, M6, M7 and M11 inhibited the activity of EGFR, HER2 and HER4 in vitro. In vivo, oral administration of neratinib inhibited tumor growth in mouse xenograft models with tumor cell lines expressing HER2 and EGFR.
Nilotinib is an inhibitor of the BCR-ABL kinase. Nilotinib binds to and stabilizes the inactive conformation of the kinase domain of ABL protein. In vitro, nilotinib inhibited BCR-ABL mediated proliferation of murine leukemic cell lines and human cell lines derived from patients with Ph+ CML. Under the conditions of the assays, nilotinib was able to overcome imatinib resistance resulting from BCR-ABL kinase mutations, in 32 out of 33 mutations tested. In vivo, nilotinib reduced the tumor size in a murine BCR-ABL xenograft model.
Pazopanib is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α and -β, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1 and -3, cytokine receptor (Kit), interleukin-2 receptor-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk), leukocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck), and transmembrane glycoprotein receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Fms). In vitro, pazopanib inhibited ligand-induced autophosphorylation of VEGFR-2, Kit, and PDGFR-β receptors. In vivo, pazopanib inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in mouse lungs, angiogenesis in a mouse model, and the growth of some human tumor xenografts in mice.
a kinase inhibitor, inhibits Janus Associated Kinases (JAKs) JAK1 and JAK2 which mediate the signaling of a number of cytokines and growth factors that are important for hematopoiesis and immune function