NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY SECTION.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Testosterone has been tested by subcutaneous injection and implantation in mice and rats. In mice, implant induced cervical-uterine tumors metastasized in some cases. There is suggestive evidence that injection of testosterone into some strains of female mice increases their susceptibility to hepatoma. Testosterone is also known to increase the number of tumors and decrease the degree of differentiation of chemically induced carcinomas of the liver in rats. Testosterone was negative in the in vitro Ames and in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assays. The administration of exogenous testosterone has been reported to suppress spermatogenesis in the rat, dog and non-human primates, which was reversible on cessation of the treatment.
DOSAGE FORMS & STRENGTHS SECTION.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Testosterone gelfor topical use only, is supplied in a metered-dose pump. One pump actuation delivers 10 mg of testosterone. Testosterone gel is supplied as a metered-dose pump. One pump actuation delivers 10 mg of testosterone. (3)
BOXED WARNING SECTION.
WARNING: SECONDARY EXPOSURE TO TESTOSTERONE Virilization has been reported in children who were secondarily exposed to testosterone gel [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Children should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application sites in men using testosterone gel [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Healthcare providers should advise patients to strictly adhere to recommended instructions for use [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)]. WARNING: SECONDARY EXPOSURE TO TESTOSTERONE Virilization has been reported in children who were secondarily exposed to testosterone gel. (5.2, 6.2) Children should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application sites in men using testosterone gel. (2.2, 5.2) Healthcare providers should advise patients to strictly adhere to recommended instructions for use. (2.2, 5.2, 17)
PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL.
Package Label Principle Display Panel Carton Label
ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse reaction (incidence 3%) is skin reactions at the application site (16.1%). (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact QUALITEST PHARMACEUTICALS at 1-800-444-4011 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. In a controlled multicenter, open label, non-comparative 90-day clinical study, 149 hypogonadal patients were treated with testosterone gel [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Adverse reactions occurred in 22.8% (34/149) of patients. The most common adverse reaction reported in this study was skin reactions associated with the site of application (16.1%; 24/149) of which 79% (19/24) were mild, and the remainder were moderate (21%; 5/24) (Table 3). Table 3 Adverse Reactions Reported in >1% Patients in the US Phase 3 Clinical Trial of Testosterone Gel Adverse Reaction Number (%) of Patients N = 149 Skin reaction 24 (16.1%) Prostatic specific antigen increased 2 (1.3%) Abnormal dreams 2 (1.3%) During the 90 day trial 5 patients (3.4%) discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions. These reactions were: 1 patient with contact dermatitis (considered probably related to testosterone gel application), 1 with application site reaction (considered probably related to testosterone gel application), 1 with gastrointestinal hypomotility (considered possibly related to testosterone gel application), 1 with severe dyspnea (considered not related to testosterone gel application), and 1 with moderate contusion (considered not related to testosterone gel application). 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of testosterone gel. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure (Table 4). Table 4 -Adverse Drug Reactions from Post approval Experience of Testosterone Gel by System Organ Class System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Blood and lymphatic system disorders Polycythemia Eye disorders Vitreous detachment Gastrointestinal disorders Abdominal symptoms General disorders and administrative site conditions Application site erythema, irritation, pruritus, and swelling; fatigue, influenza like illness, and malaise. Investigations Decreased serum testosterone, increased hematocrit and hemoglobin Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Pain in extremity Nervous system disorders Dizziness, headache, and migraine Reproductive system and breast disorders Erectile dysfunction, and priapism Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Allergic dermatitis, erythema, rash, and papular rash. Vascular disorders Venous thromboembolism Cardiovascular disorders Myocardial infarction, stroke Secondary Exposure to Testosterone in Children Cases of secondary exposure to testosterone resulting in virilization of children have been reported in postmarketing surveillance of testosterone gel products. Signs and symptoms of these reported cases have included enlargement of the clitoris (with surgical intervention) or the penis, development of pubic hair, increased erections and libido, aggressive behavior, and advanced bone age. In most cases with a reported outcome, these signs and symptoms were reported to have regressed with removal of the testosterone gel exposure. In a few cases, however, enlarged genitalia did not fully return to age appropriate normal size, and bone age remained modestly greater than chronological age. In some of the cases, direct contact with the sites of application on the skin of men using testosterone gel was reported. In at least one reported case, the reporter considered the possibility of secondary exposure from items such as the testosterone gel users shirts and/or other fabric, such as towels and sheets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Testosterone gel is indicated for replacement therapy in males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone: Primary hypogonadism (congenital or acquired) testicular failure due to conditions such as cryptorchidism, bilateral torsion, orchitis, vanishing testis syndrome, orchiectomy, Klinefelters syndrome, chemotherapy, or toxic damage from alcohol, heavy metals. These men usually have low serum testosterone concentrations and gonadotropins (Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)) above the normal range. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (congenital or acquired) gonadotropin or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) deficiency or pituitary-hypothalamic injury from tumors, trauma, or radiation. These men have low serum testosterone concentrations but have gonadotropins in the normal or low range. Limitations of use: Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in men with age-related hypogonadism (also referred to as late-onset hypogonadism) have not been established. Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in males <18 years old have not been established [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Testosterone gel is an androgen indicated for replacementtherapy in males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone: Primary hypogonadism (congenital or acquired). (1) Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (congenital or acquired). (1) Limitations of use: Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in men with age-related hypogonadism have not been established (1). Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in males <18 years old have not been established. (8.4)
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE SECTION.
9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE 9.1 Controlled Substance Testosterone gel contains testosterone, a Schedule III controlled substance in the Controlled Substances Act. 9.2 Abuse Drug abuse is intentional non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological and physiological effects. Abuse and misuse of testosterone are seen in male and female adults and adolescents. Testosterone, often in combination with other anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), and not obtained by prescription through a pharmacy, may be abused by athletes and bodybuilders. There have been reports of misuse of men taking higher doses of legally obtained testosterone than prescribed and continuing testosterone despite adverse events or against medical advice. Abuse-Related Adverse Reactions Serious adverse reactions have been reported in individuals who abuse anabolic androgenic steroids, and include cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, hepatotoxicity, and serious psychiatric manifestations, including major depression, mania, paranoia, psychosis, delusions, hallucinations, hostility and aggression. The following adverse reactions have also been reported in men: transient ischemic attacks, convulsions, hypomania, irritability, dyslipidemias, testicular atrophy, subfertility, and infertility. The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in women: hirsutism, virilization, deepening of voice, clitoral enlargement, breast atrophy, male-pattern baldness, and menstrual irregularities. The following adverse reactions have been reported in male and female adolescents: premature closure of bony epiphyses with termination of growth, and precocious puberty. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size and may include abuse of other agents, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. 9.3 Dependence Behaviors Associated with Addiction Continued abuse of testosterone and other anabolic steroids, leading to addiction is characterized by the following behaviors: Taking greater dosages than prescribed Continued drug use despite medical and social problems due to drug use Spending significant time to obtain the drug when supplies of the drug are interrupted Giving a higher priority to drug use than other obligations Having difficulty in discontinuing the drug despite desires and attempts to do so Experiencing withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation of use Physical dependence is characterized by withdrawal symptoms after abrupt drug discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Individuals taking supratherapeutic doses of testosterone may experience withdrawal symptoms lasting for weeks or months which include depressed mood, major depression, fatigue, craving, restlessness, irritability, anorexia, insomnia, decreased libido and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Drug dependence in individuals using approved doses of testosterone for approved indications has not been documented.
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Prior to initiating, testosterone gel confirm the diagnosis of hypogonadism by ensuring that serum testosterone concentrations have been measured in the morning on at least two separate days and that these serum testosterone concentrations are below the normal range. Prior to initiating testosterone gel, confirm the diagnosis of hypogonadism by ensuring that serum testosterone has been measured in the morning on at least two separate days and that these concentrations are below the normal range (2). Starting dose oftestosterone gel is 40 mg of testosterone (4 pump actuations) applied topically once daily in the morning. (2.1) Apply to clean, dry, intact skin of the thighs. Do not apply testosterone gel to the genitals or other parts of the body. (2.2) Dose adjustment: testosterone gel can be dose adjusted between a minimum of 10 mg of testosterone (1 pump actuation) and a maximum of 70 mg of testosterone (7 pump actuations) on the basis of total serum testosterone concentrations 2 hours post testosterone gel application. The dose should be titrated based on the serum testosterone concentration from a single blood draw 2 hours after applying testosterone gel at approximately 14 days and 35 days after starting treatment or following dose adjustment. In addition, serum testosterone concentration should be assessed periodically thereafter.(2.1) Patients should wash hands immediately with soap and water after applying testosterone gel and cover the application site with clothing after the gel has dried. Wash the application site thoroughly with soap and water prior to any situation where skin-to-skin contact of the application site with another person is anticipated. (2.2) Testosterone gel is not interchangeable with other topical testosterone products. (2.1) 2.1 Dosing and Dose Adjustment The recommended starting dose of testosterone gel is 40 mg of testosterone (4 pump actuations) applied once daily to the thighs in the morning. The dose can be adjusted between a minimum of 10 mg of testosterone and a maximum of 70 mg of testosterone. To ensure proper dosing, the dose should be titrated based on the serum testosterone concentration from a single blood draw 2 hours after applying testosterone gel at approximately 14 days and 35 daysafter starting treatment or following dose adjustment. In addition, serum testosterone concentration should be assessed periodically thereafter. Table 1 describes the dose adjustments required at each titration step. Table 1 - Dose Adjustment Criteria Total Serum Testosterone Concentration 2 hours Post Testosterone Gel Application Dose Titration Equal to or greater than 2,500 ng/dL Decrease daily dose by 20 mg (2 pump actuations) Equal to or greater than 1,250 and less than 2,500 ng/dL Decrease daily dose by 10 mg (1 pump actuation) Equal to or greater than 500 and less than 1,250 ng/dL No change: continue on current dose Less than 500 ng/dL Increase daily dose by 10 mg (1 pump actuation) The application site and dose of testosterone gel are not interchangeable with other topical testosterone products. 2.2 Administration Instructions Testosterone gel should be applied directly to clean, dry, intact skin of the front and inner thighs. Do not apply testosterone gel to the genitals or other parts of the body. Patients should be instructed to use one finger to gently rub testosterone gel evenly onto the front and inner area of each thigh as directed in Table 2. Table 2 Application of Testosterone Gel Total Dose of Testosterone Total Pump Actuations Pump Actuations per Thigh Thigh #1 Thigh #2 10 mg 1 1 0 20 mg 2 1 1 30 mg 3 2 1 40 mg 4 2 2 50 mg 5 3 2 60 mg 6 3 3 70 mg 7 4 3 Once the application site is dry, the site should be covered with clothing [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water. Avoid applying the gel to the thigh adjacent to the scrotum. Avoid fire, flames or smoking until the gel has dried since alcohol based products, including testosterone gel, are flammable. The patient should avoid swimming or showering or washing the administration site for a minimum of 2 hours after application [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. To obtain a full first dose, it is necessary to prime the canister pump. To do so, with the canister in the upright position, slowly and fully depress the actuator eight times. The first three actuations may result in no discharge of gel. Safely discard the gel from the first eight actuations. It is only necessary to prime the pump before the first dose. Strict adherence to the following precautions is advised in order to minimize the potential for secondary exposure to testosterone from testosterone gel-treated skin: Children and women should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application site(s) of men using testosterone gel. Testosterone gel should only be applied to the front and inner thighs (area of application should be limited to the area that will be covered by the patients shorts or pants). Patients should wash their hands immediately with soap and water after applying testosterone gel. Patients should cover the application site(s) with clothing (e.g., shorts of sufficient length or pants) after the gel has dried. Prior to any situation in which skin-to-skin contact with the application site is anticipated, patients should wash the application site(s) thoroughly with soap and water to remove any testosterone residue. In the event that unwashed or unclothed skin to which testosterone gel has been applied comes in direct contact with the skin of another person, the general area of contact on the other person should be washed with soap and water as soon as possible.
HOW SUPPLIED SECTION.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Testosterone gel is supplied in a 60 g canister with a metered dose pump that delivers 10 mg of testosterone per complete pump actuation. The metered dose pump is capable of dispensing 120 metered pump actuations. One pump actuation dispenses 0.5 g of gel. Testosterone gel is available in a 60 g canisterNDC 0603-7831-88. Store at controlled room temperature 20o-25oC (68o-77oF); excursions permitted to 15o-30oC (59o-86oF). [See USP]. Do Not Freeze. Used testosterone gel canisters should be discarded in household trash in a manner that prevents accidental application or ingestion by children or pets.
11 DESCRIPTION Testosterone gel is a clear, colorless, odorless, gel containing testosterone. Testosterone gel is available in a metered-dose pump. Each pump actuation provides 10 mg of testosterone and each container is capable of dispensing 120 pump actuations. One pump actuation dispenses 0.5 g of gel. The active pharmacologic ingredient in Testosterone gel is testosterone. Testosterone USP is a white to almost white powder described chemically as 17-beta hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one. Pharmacologically inactive ingredients in testosterone gel are: propylene glycol, purified water, ethanol, 2-propanol, oleic acid, carbomer 1382, triethanolamine and butylated hydroxytoluene.
10 OVERDOSAGE There is a single report of acute overdosage after parenteral administration of an approved testosterone product in the literature. This subject had serum testosterone concentrations of up to 11,400 ng/dL, which were implicated in a cerebrovascular accident. There were no reports of overdose in the testosterone gel clinical trial. Treatment of overdosage would consist of discontinuation of testosterone gel, washing the application site with soap and water, and appropriate symptomatic and supportive care.
SPL MEDGUIDE SECTION.
MEDICATION GUIDE Testosterone Gel CIII for topical use What is the most important information I should know about testosterone gel? 1.Testosterone gel can transfer from your body to others including, children and women. Children and women should avoid contact with the unwashed or not covered (unclothed) areas where testosterone gel has been applied to your skin. Early signs and symptoms of puberty have occurred in young children who have come in direct contact with testosterone by touching areas where men have used testosterone gel. Children Signs and symptoms of early puberty in a child when they come in direct contact with testosterone gel may include: Abnormal sexual changes: enlarged penis or clitoris. early growth of hair near the vagina or around the penis (pubic hair). erections or acting out sexual urges (sex drive). Behavior problems: acting aggressively, behaving in an angry or violent way. Women Signs and symptoms in women when they come in direct contact with testosterone gel may include: changes in body hair. an abnormal increase in pimples (acne). Stop using testosterone gel and call your healthcare provider right away if you see any signs and symptoms in a child or a woman that may have happened through accidental touching of the area where you have applied testosterone gel. 2.To lower the risk of transfer of testosterone gel from your body to others, follow these important instructions: Apply testosterone gel only to the front and inside area of your thighs that will be covered by clothing. Wash your hands right away with soap and water after applying testosterone gel. After the gel has dried, cover the application area with clothing. Keep the area covered until you have washed the application area well or have showered. If you expect to have skin-to-skin contact with another person, first wash the application area well with soap and water. If a child or woman touches the area where you have applied testosterone gel, that area on the child or woman should be washed well with soap and water right away. What is testosterone gel? Testosterone gel is a prescription medicine that contains testosterone. Testosterone gel is used to treat adult males who have low or no testosterone due to certain medical conditions. Your healthcare provider will test your blood before you start and while you are using testosterone gel. It is not known if testosterone gel is safe or effective to treat men who have low testosterone due to aging. It is not known if testosterone gel is safe or effective in children younger than 18 years old. Improper use of testosterone gel may affect bone growth in children. Testosterone gel is a controlled substance (CIII) because it contains testosterone that can be a target for people who abuse prescription medicines. Keep your testosterone gel in a safe place to protect it. Never give testosterone gel to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms you have. Selling or giving away this medicine may harm others and is against the law. Testosterone gel is not meant for use in women. Do not use testosterone gel if you: have breast cancer. have or might have prostate cancer. are pregnant or may become pregnant or breastfeeding. Testosterone gel may harm your unborn or breastfeeding baby. Women who are pregnant or who may become pregnant should avoid contact with the area of skin where testosterone gel has been applied. Before using testosterone gel, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions including if you: have breast cancer. have or might have prostate cancer. have urinary problems due to an enlarged prostate. have heart problems. have liver or kidney problems. have problems breathing while you sleep (sleep apnea). Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Using testosterone gel with certain other medicines can affect each other. Especially, tell your healthcare provider if you take: insulin medicines that decrease blood clotting (blood thinners) corticosteroids How should I use testosterone gel? See the detailed Instructions for Use for information about how to use testosterone gel at the end of this Medication Guide. It is important that you apply testosterone gel exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to. Your healthcare provider may change your testosterone gel dose. Do not change your testosterone gel dose without talking to your healthcare provider. Apply testosterone gel in the morning. If you shower or bathe, testosterone gel should be applied afterwards. What are the possible side effects of testosterone gel? Testosterone gel can cause serious side effects including: See What is the most important information I should know about testosterone gel? If you already have enlargement of your prostate gland your signs and symptoms can get worse while using testosterone gel. This can include: increased urination at night. trouble starting your urine stream. having to pass urine many times during the day. having an urge to go to the bathroom right away. having a urine accident. being unable to pass urine or weak urine flow. Possible increased risk of prostate cancer. Your healthcare provider should check you for prostate cancer or any other prostate problems before you start and while you use testosterone gel. Blood clots in the legs or lungs. Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in your leg can include leg pain, swelling or redness. Signs and symptoms of a blood clot in your lungs can include difficulty breathing or chest pain. Possible increased risk of heart attack or stroke. In large doses testosterone gel may lower your sperm count. Swelling of your ankles, feet, or body, with or without heart failure. Enlarged or painful breasts. Have problems breathing while you sleep (sleep apnea). Increased red blood cell count. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the serious side effects listed above. The most common side effects of testosterone gel include: skin redness or irritation where testosterone gel is applied increased in blood level of Prostate Specific Antigen (a test used to screen for prostate cancer) abnormal dreams Other side effects include more erections than are normal for you or erections that last a long time. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all the possible side effects of testosterone gel. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. How should I store testosterone gel? Store testosterone gel at room temperature between 68F to 77F (20C to 25C). When it is time to throw away the canister, safely throw away used testosterone gel in household trash. Be careful to prevent accidental exposure of children or pets. Keep testosterone gel away from fire. Do not freeze testosterone gel. Keep testosterone gel and all medicines out of the reach of children. General information about testosterone gel Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use testosterone gel for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give testosterone gel to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about testosterone gel that is written for health professionals. What are the ingredients in testosterone gel? Active ingredients: testosterone Inactive ingredients: propylene glycol, purified water, ethanol, 2-propanol, oleic acid, carbomer 1382, triethanolamine and butylated hydroxytoluene. Manufactured by: Pharbil Waltrop GmbH Im Wirrigen 25, 45731 Waltrop, Germany Distributed by: Par Pharmaceutical Chestnut Ridge, NY 10977 This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Issued: 06/2019
SPL PATIENT PACKAGE INSERT SECTION.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE Testosterone Gel CIII for topical use Read this Instructions for Use for testosterone gel before you start using it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This leaflet does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment. Applying testosterone gel: Apply testosterone gel only to areas that will be covered by shorts or pants. Testosterone gel should be applied to the front and inner part of your thighs only. Do not apply testosterone gel to the area of the thigh closest to the scrotum. Do not apply testosterone gel to any other parts of your body such as your stomach area (abdomen), penis, scrotum, shoulders or upper arms. Apply testosterone gel in the morning. If you shower or bathe, testosterone gel should be applied afterwards. Avoid swimming, showering, or bathing for at least 2 hours after you apply testosterone gel. Testosterone gel is flammable until dry. Let testosterone gel dry before smoking or going near an open flame. Wash your hands with soap and water right after you apply testosterone gel. Before using a new canister of testosterone gel for the first time, you will need to prime the pump. To prime the testosterone gel pump, gently push down on the pump 8 times. Do not use any testosterone gel that comes out while priming. Wash it down the sink or throw it in the trash to avoid accidental exposure to others. Your testosterone gel pump is now ready to use. Use testosterone gel exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to use it. Your healthcare provider will tell you the dose of testosterone gel that is right for you. Press down on the pump to apply the medicine directly on clean, dry, skin that is not broken on the front and inner part of your thighs. Use 1 finger to gently rub testosterone gel evenly onto the front and inner part of each thigh. Let the application site dry completely before putting on shorts or pants. Wash your hands right away with soap and water. How should I store testosterone gel? Store testosterone gel at room temperature between 68F to 77F (20C to 25C). When it is time to throw away the canister, safely throw away used testosterone gel in the household trash. Be careful to prevent accidental exposure of children or pets. Keep testosterone gel away from fire. Do not freeze testosterone gel. Keep testosterone gel and all medicines out of the reach of children. This Instructions for Use has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Revised: 06/2019
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS SECTION.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Monitor patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH. (5.1) Avoid unintentional exposure of women or children to testosterone gel. Secondary exposure to testosterone can produce signs of virilization. Testosterone gel should be discontinued until the cause of virilization is identified. (5.2) Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) have been reported in patients using testosterone products. Evaluate patients with signs or symptoms consistent with DVT or PE. (5.4) Some postmarketing studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke associated with use of testosterone replacement therapy. (5.5) Exogenous administration of androgens may lead to azoospermia. (5.8) Edema with or without congestive heart failure (CHF) may be a complication in patients with pre-existing cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease. (5.10) Sleep apnea may occur in those with risk factors. (5.12) Monitor serum testosterone, prostate specific antigen (PSA), hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver function tests and lipid concentrations periodically. (5.1, 5.3,5.9, 5.13) Testosterone gel is flammable until dry. (5.16) 5.1 Worsening of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Potential Risk of Prostate Cancer Patients with BPH treated with androgens are at an increased risk of worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH. Monitor patients with BPH for worsening signs and symptoms. Patients treated with androgens may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Evaluation of the patients for the presence of prostate cancer prior to initiating and during treatment with androgens is appropriate [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.2 Potential for Secondary Exposure to Testosterone Cases of secondary exposure resulting in virilization of children have been reported in postmarketing surveillance of testosterone gel products. Signs and symptoms have included enlargement of the penis or clitoris, development of pubic hair, increased erections and libido, aggressive behavior, and advanced bone age. In most cases, these signs and symptoms regressed with removal of the exposure to testosterone gel. In a few cases, however, enlarged genitalia did not fully return to age-appropriate normal size, and bone age remained modestly greater than chronological age. The risk of transfer was increased in some of these cases by not adhering to precautions for the appropriate use of the topical testosterone product. Children and women should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application sites in men using testosterone gel [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Inappropriate changes in genital size or development of pubic hair or libido in children, or changes in body hair distribution, significant increase in acne, or other signs of virilization in adult women should be brought to the attention of a physician and the possibility of secondary exposure to testosterone gel should also be brought to the attention of a physician. Testosterone gel should be promptly discontinued until the cause of virilization has been identified. 5.3 Polycythemia Increases in hematocrit, reflective of increases in red blood cell mass, may require lowering or discontinuation of testosterone. Check hematocrit prior to initiating treatment. It would also be appropriate to re-evaluate the hematocrit 3 to 6 months after starting treatment, and then annually. If hematocrit becomes elevated, stop therapy until hematocrit decreases to an acceptable concentration. An increase in red blood cell mass may increase the risk of thromboembolic events. 5.4 Venous Thromboembolism There have been Postmarketing reports of venousthromboembolic events, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), in patients using testosterone products, such as testosterone gel. Evaluate patients who report symptoms of pain, edema, warmth and erythema in the lower extremity for DVT and those who present with acuteshortness of breath for PE. If a venous thromboembolic event is suspected, discontinue treatment with testosterone gel and initiate appropriate workup and management. 5.5 Cardiovascular Risk Long term clinical safety trials have not been conducted to assess the cardiovascular outcomes of testosterone replacement therapy in men. To date, epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials have been inconclusive for determining the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), such as non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular death, with the use of testosterone compared to non-use. Some studies, but not all, have reported an increased risk of MACE in association with use of testosterone replacement therapy in men. Patients should be informed of this possible risk when deciding whether to use or to continue to use testosterone gel. 5.6 Abuse of Testosterone and Monitoring of Serum Testosterone Concentrations Testosterone has been subject to abuse, typically at doses higher than recommended for the approved indication and in combination with other anabolic androgenic steroids. Anabolic androgenic steroid abuse can lead to serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse reactions [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)]. If testosterone abuse is suspected, check serum testosterone concentrations to ensure they are within therapeutic range. However, testosterone levels may be in the normal or subnormal range in men abusing synthetic testosterone derivatives. Counsel patients concerning the serious adverse reactions associated with abuse of testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids. Conversely, consider the possibility of testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in suspected patients who present with serious cardiovascular or psychiatric adverse events. 5.7 Use in Women Due to the lack of controlled evaluations in women and potential virilizing effects, testosterone gel is not indicated for use in women [see Contraindications (4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)]. 5.8 Potential for Adverse Effects on Spermatogenesis With large doses of exogenous androgens, including testosterone gel, spermatogenesis may be suppressed through feedback inhibition of pituitary FSH which could possibly lead to adverse effects on semen parameters including sperm count. 5.9 Hepatic Adverse Effects Prolonged use of high doses of orally active 17-alpha-alkyl androgens (e.g. methyltestosterone) has been associated with serious hepatic adverse effects (peliosis hepatis, hepatic neoplasms, cholestatic hepatitis and jaundice). Peliosis hepatis can be a life-threatening or fatal complication. Long-term therapy with testosterone enanthate has produced multiple hepatic adenomas. Testosterone gel is not known to cause these adverse effects. 5.10 Edema Androgens, including testosterone gel, may promote retention of sodium and water. Edema, with or without congestive heart failure, may be a serious complication in patients with pre-existing cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.11Gynecomastia Gynecomastia may develop and persist in patients being treated with androgens, including testosterone gel, for hypogonadism. 5.12 Sleep Apnea The treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone may potentiate sleep apnea in some patients, especially those with risk factors such as obesity or chronic lung diseases. 5.13 Lipids Changes in serum lipid profile may require dose adjustment or discontinuation of testosterone therapy. 5.14 Hypercalcemia Androgens, including testosterone gel, should be used with caution in cancer patients at risk of hypercalcemia (and associated hypercalciuria). Regular monitoring of serum calcium concentrations is recommended in these patients. 5.15 Decreased Thyroxine-binding globulin Androgens, including testosterone gel, may decrease concentrations of thyroxin-binding globulins, resulting in decreased total T4 serum concentrations and increased resin uptake of T3 and T4. Free thyroid hormone concentrations remain unchanged, however, and there is no clinical evidence of thyroid dysfunction. 5.16 Flammability Alcohol based products, including testosterone gel, are flammable; therefore, patients should be advised to avoid smoking, fire or flame until thetestosterone gel has dried.
DRUG INTERACTIONS SECTION.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Androgens may decrease blood glucose and therefore may decrease insulin requirements in diabetic patients. (7.1) Changes in anticoagulant activity may be seen with androgens. More frequent monitoring of International Normalized Ratio (INR) and prothrombin time is recommended. (7.2) Use of testosterone with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids may result in increased fluid retention. Use with caution, particularly in patients with cardiac, renal or hepatic disease. (7.3) 7.1 Insulin Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease insulin requirements. 7.2 Oral Anticoagulants Changes in anticoagulant activity may be seen with androgens, therefore more frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR) and prothrombin time are recommended in patients taking anticoagulants, especially at the initiation and termination of androgen therapy. 7.3 Corticosteroids The concurrent administration of testosterone with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids may result in increased fluid retention and requires careful monitoring particularly in patients with cardiac, renal or hepatic disease.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS SECTION.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS There are insufficient long-term safety data in geriatric patients using Testosterone gel to assess the potential risks of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer. (8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category X [see Contraindications (4)]. Testosterone gel is contraindicated during pregnancy or in women who may become pregnant. Testosterone is teratogenic and may cause fetal harm. Exposure of a female fetus to androgens may result in varying degrees of virilization. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be made aware of the potential hazard to the fetus. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Although it is not known how much testosterone transfers into human milk, testosterone gel is contraindicated in nursing women because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants. Testosterone and other androgens may adversely affect lactation [see Contraindications (4)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in pediatric patients 8.5 Geriatric Use There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric patients involved in controlled clinical studies utilizing testosterone gel to determine whether efficacy in those over 65 years of age differs from younger subjects. Of the 149 patients enrolled in the pivotal clinical study utilizing testosterone gel, 20 were over 65 years of age. Additionally, there are insufficient long-term safety data in geriatric patients to assess the potential risks of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer. Geriatric patients treated with androgens may also be at risk for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH. 8.6 Renal Impairment No studies were conducted in patients with renal impairment. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment No studies were conducted in patients with hepatic impairment.
RECENT MAJOR CHANGES SECTION.
RECENT MAJOR CHANGES Warnings and Precautions (5.6) 12/2016
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS SECTION.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION See FDA-approved Medication Guide. Patients should be informed of the following information: 17.1 Use in Men with Known or Suspected Prostate or Breast Cancer Men with known or suspected prostate or breast cancer should not use testosterone gel [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 17.2 Potential for Secondary Exposure to Testosterone and Steps to Prevent Secondary Exposure Secondary exposure to testosterone in children and women can occur with the use of testosterone gel in men. Cases of secondary exposure to testosterone in children have been reported. Physicians should advise patients of the reported signs and symptoms of secondary exposure which may include the following: In children; unexpected sexual development including inappropriate enlargement of the penis or clitoris, premature development of pubic hair, increased erections, and aggressive behavior. In women; changes in hair distribution, increase in acne, or other signs of testosterone effects. The possibility of secondary exposure to testosterone gel should be brought to the attention of a healthcare provider. Testosterone gel should be promptly discontinued until the cause of virilization is identified. Strict adherence to the following precautions is advised to minimize the potential for secondary exposure to testosterone from testosterone gel in men [see Medication Guide]: Children and women should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application site(s) of men using testosterone gel. Patients using testosterone gel should apply the product as directed and strictly adhere to the following: Wash hands with soap and water after application. Cover the application site(s) with clothing after the gel has dried. Wash the application site(s) thoroughly with soap and water prior to any situation where skin-to-skin contact of the application site with another person is anticipated. In the event that unwashed or unclothed skin to which testosterone gel has been applied comes in contact with the skin of another person, the general area of contact on the other person should be washed with soap and water as soon as possible [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 17.3 Potential Adverse Reactions with Androgens Patients should be informed that treatment with androgens may lead to adverse reactions which include: Changes in urinary habits such as increased urination at night, trouble starting your urine stream, passing urine many times during the day, having an urge that you have to go to the bathroom right away, having a urine accident, being unable to pass urine and weak urine flow. Breathing disturbances, including those associated with sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness. Too frequent or persistent erections of the penis. Nausea, vomiting, changes in skin color, or ankle swelling. 17.4 Patients Should Be Advised of the Following Instructions for Use Read the Medication Guide before starting testosterone gel therapy and reread it each time the prescription is renewed. Testosterone gel should be applied and used appropriately to maximize the benefits and to minimize the risk of secondary exposure in children and women. Keep testosterone gel out of the reach of children. Testosterone gel is an alcohol based product and is flammable; therefore avoid fire, flame or smoking until the gel has dried. It is important to adhere to all recommended monitoring. Report any changes in their state of health, such as changes in urinary habits, breathing, sleep, and mood. Testosterone gel is prescribed to meet the patients specific needs, therefore, the patient should never share testosterone gel with anyone. Wait 2 hours before swimming or washing following application of testosterone gel.This will ensure that the greatest amount of testosterone gel is absorbed into their system. Manufactured by: Pharbil Waltrop GmbH Waltrop, Germany Distributed by: Par Pharmaceutical Chestnut Ridge, NY 10977 118315
CLINICAL STUDIES SECTION.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Clinical Study in Hypogonadal Males Testosterone gel was evaluated in a multicenter, 90 day open-label, non-comparative trial of 149 hypogonadal males with body mass index (BMI) 22 kg/m2 and < 35 kg/m2 and 18-75 years of age (mean age 54.5 years). The patients were screened for a single serum total testosterone concentration < 250 ng/dL, or two consecutive serum total testosterone concentrations < 300 ng/dL. Patients were Caucasian (80.5%), Black (10.1%), Hispanic (7.4%) and other (2.0%). Testosterone gel was applied once each morning to the thighs at a starting dose of 40 mg of testosterone (4 pump actuations) per day. The dose was adjusted between a minimum of 10 mg and a maximum of 70 mg testosterone on the basis of total serum testosterone concentration obtained 2 hours post testosterone gel application on Days 14, 35, and 60 ( 3 days). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with Cavg within the normal range (greater than or equal to 300 ng/dL and less than or equal to 1140 ng/dL) on Day 90. In patients treated with testosterone gel, 77.5% (100/129) had Cavg within the normal range on Day 90. The secondary endpoint was the percentage of patients with Cmax above three pre-determined limits. The percentages of patients with Cmax greater than 1500 ng/dL, and between 1800 and 2499 ng/dL on Day 90 were 5.4% and 1.6%, respectively. No patient had a Cmax greater than or equal to 2500 ng/dL on Day 90. Dose titrations on Days 14, 35 and 60 resulted in mean (SD) Cavg and Cmax for final doses of 10 mg 70 mg on Day 90 shown in Table 5. Table 5 Mean (SD) Steady-StateTestosterone Concentrations (Cavg and Cmax) by final dose on Day 90 Final Dose 10mg (n=1) 20mg (n=6) 30mg (n=16) 40mg (n=30) 50mg (n=26) 60mg (n=27) 70mg (n=23) Cavg (ng/dL) Mean 196 464 392 444 483 441 415 SD 205 164 176 156 163 136 Cmax (ng/dL) Mean 503 971 775 855 964 766 724 SD 399 278 417 389 292 313 Figure 2 summarizes the pharmacokinetic profiles of total testosterone in patients completing 90 days of testosterone gel treatment administered as 40 mg of testosterone once-daily for the initial 14 days followed by possible titration according to follow-up testosterone measurements. Figure 2 Mean (SD) Steady-State Serum Total Testosterone Concentrations on Day 90 (N=129) Additionally, there were no clinically significant changes from baseline for sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (slight decrease), E2 (slight increase) and ratio of DHT to total testosterone (slight increase) at Day 90.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Endogenous androgens, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are responsible for the normal growth and development of the male sex organs and for the maintenance of secondary sex characteristics. These effects include the growth and maturation of the prostate, seminal vesicles, penis and scrotum; the development of male hair distribution, such as facial, pubic, chest and axillary hair; laryngeal enlargement, vocal cord thickening, alterations in body musculature and fat distribution. Testosterone and DHT are necessary for the normal development of secondary sex characteristics. Male hypogonadism, a clinical syndrome resulting from insufficient secretion of testosterone, has two main etiologies. Primary hypogonadism is caused by defects of the gonads, such as Klinefelters syndrome or Leydig cell aplasia, whereas secondary hypogonadism is the failure of the hypothalamus or pituitary to produce sufficient gonadotropins (FSH, LH). 12.2 Pharmacodynamics No specific pharmacodynamic studies were conducted using testosterone gel. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Absorption Testosterone gel delivers physiologic amounts of testosterone, producing serum testosterone concentrations that approximate normal concentrations (> 300 ng/dL) seen in healthy men. Testosterone gel provides continuous transdermal delivery of testosterone for 24 hours following a single application to clean, dry, intact skin of the front and inner thighs (Figure 1). Figure 1: Mean (SD) Serum Total Testosterone Concentrations on Day 7 in Patients Following Testosterone Gel Once-Daily Application of 40 mg of Testosterone (N=12) Distribution Circulating testosterone is primarily bound in the serum to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin. Approximately 40% of testosterone in plasma is bound to SHBG, 2% remains unbound (free) and the rest is loosely bound to albumin and other proteins. Metabolism Testosterone is metabolized to various 17-keto steroids through two different pathways. The major active metabolites of testosterone are estradiol and DHT. Excretion There is considerable variation in the half-life of testosterone concentration as reported in the literature, ranging from 10 to 100 minutes. About 90% of a dose of testosterone given intramuscularly is excreted in the urine as glucuronic acid and sulfuric acid conjugates of testosterone and its metabolites. About 6% is excreted in the feces, mostly in the unconjugated form. Inactivation of testosterone occurs primarily in the liver. Potential for testosterone transfer The potential for testosterone transfer from healthy males dosed with testosterone gel to healthy females was evaluated in a placebo-controlled, three-way crossover study. The washout period was approximately 29 days. Six males were treated with either testosterone gel (30 mg testosterone) or placebo to one thigh only. At 2 hours after the application of testosterone gel to males, the females rubbed their forearms for 15 minutes on the thigh of the males. Serum concentrations of testosterone were monitored in females for 24 hours after the transfer procedure. When direct skin-to-skin transfer occurred with testosterone gel mean Cavg increased by 134% and mean Cmax increased by 191%, compared to direct skin-to-skin transfer with placebo. When transfer occurred with testosterone gel while covering a thigh with boxer shorts, mean Cavg decreased by 3% and mean Cmax increased by 2%, compared to direct skin-to-skin transfer with placebo [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Effect of showering In a two-way crossover study, the effects of showering on the pharmacokinetics of total testosterone following application of testosterone gel (30 mg testosterone to each thigh; total 60 mg testosterone) were assessed in 7 hypogonadal males. There were two 7-day treatment phases, with showering 2 hours post testosterone gel application, and without showering on Day 7 of each treatment phase. Showering decreased Cavg by 3% and it increased Cmax by 13% [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Effect of hand washing and application site (inner thigh) washing In an open-label, single-dose study, the amount of residual testosterone on the application finger and application site after washing was evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects. Prior to application of testosterone gel, each index finger and each intended application site (left and right front and inner thighs) was wiped using dry sponges to assess baseline skin testosterone. Subjects then used each index finger to rub testosterone gel (40 mg testosterone) onto each inner thigh. On one side, the index finger was immediately wiped using dry sponges to collect residual testosterone. On the other side, each subject washed their hands with liquid soap and warm tap water immediately after drug application, then wiped the index fingerusing dry sponges to collect residual testosterone. A mean (SD) of 0.002 (0.006) mg of residual testosterone (i.e., 99.8% reduction compared to when hand was not washed) was recovered after washing hands with liquid soap and warm tap water. Two hours after the application of testosterone gel onto each inner thigh, one thigh was wiped using dry sponges. On the other thigh, the application site was washed with liquid soap and warm tap water, dried, and then wiped using dry sponges. The sponges were assayed for testosterone. A mean (SD) of 0.24 (0.009) mg of residual testosterone (i.e., 94.3% reduction compared to when application site was not washed) was recovered after application site washing.
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Testosterone gel is contraindicated in men with carcinoma of the breast or known or suspected carcinoma of the prostate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Testosterone gel is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant, or who are breastfeeding. Testosterone gel may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Testosterone gel may cause serious adverse reactions in nursing infants. Exposure of a female fetus or nursing infant to androgens may result in varying degrees of virilization. Pregnant women or those who may become pregnant need to be aware of the potential for transfer of testosterone from men treated with testosterone gel. If a pregnant woman is exposed to testosterone gel, she should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)]. Men with carcinoma of the breast or known or suspected prostate cancer. (4, 5.1) Pregnant or breastfeeding women. Testosterone may cause fetal harm. (4, 8.1, 8.3)