BOXED WARNING SECTION.


Naproxen Tablets, USP Rx Only Cardiovascular Risk - NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fate. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patient with cardiovascular disease or risk factor for cardiovascular disease may be at great risk (see WARNINGS). - Naproxen as Naproxen Tablets, USP is contraindicated for the treatment of peri0operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS). Gastrointestinal Risk - NSAIDs cause increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse event including, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).

PREGNANCY SECTION.


Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at 20 mg/kg/day (125 mg/m2/day, 0.23 times the human systemic exposure), rabbits at 20 mg/kg/day (220 mg/m2/day, 0.27 times the human systemic exposure), and mice at 170 mg/kg/day (510 mg/m2/day, 0.28 times the human systemic exposure) with no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to the drug. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Naproxen Tablets, USP should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects There is some evidence to suggest that when inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis are used to delay preterm labor there is an increased risk of neonatal complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus and intracranial hemorrhage. Naproxen treatment given in late pregnancy to delay parturition has been associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension, renal dysfunction and abnormal prostaglandin E levels in preterm infants. Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.

ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION.


ADVERSE REACTIONS Ingestion of L-Tryptophan, L-Arginine, or Choline at high doses of up to 15 grams daily is generally well tolerated. The most common adverse reactions of higher doses from 15 to 30 grams daily are nausea, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Theramine contains less than 1 gram per dose of amino acids however, some patients may experience these symptoms at lower doses. The total combined amount of amino acids in each Theramine capsule does not exceed 300 mg.

INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION.


INDICATIONS FOR USE Theramine is intended for the clinical dietary management of the metabolic processes of pain disorders and inflammatory conditions.

CARCINOGENESIS & MUTAGENESIS & IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY SECTION.


Carcinogenesis A 2-year study was performed in rats to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of naproxen at rat doses of 8, 16, and 24 mg/kg/day (50, 100, and 150 mg/m2). The maximum dose used was 0.28 times the systemic exposure to humans at the recommended dose. No evidence of tumorigenicity was found.

GERIATRIC USE SECTION.


Geriatric Use Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in elderly patients. As with other drugs used in the elderly, it is prudent to use the lowest effective dose. Experience indicates that geriatric patients may be particularly sensitive to certain adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Elderly or debilitated patients seem to tolerate peptic ulceration or bleeding less well when these events do occur. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in the geriatric population (see WARNINGS). Naproxen is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. Geriatric patients may be at greater risk for the development of a form of renal toxicity precipitated by reduced prostaglandin formation during administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).

DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION.


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Recommended Administration For the dietary management of the metabolic processes associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Take two (2) capsules every four hours or as directed by physician. As with most amino acid formulations Theramine should be taken without food to increase the absorption of key ingredients.

HOW SUPPLIED SECTION.


How Supplied Theramine is supplied in purple and white, size 0 capsules in bottles of 60 and 90 capsules. Physician Supervision Theramine is a Medical Food product available by prescription only and may be used per FDA law, and product labeling only while the patient is under ongoing physician supervision. U.S. patent pending Manufactured by Arizona Nutritional Supplements, Inc. Chandler AZ 85225 Distributed exclusively by Physician Therapeutics LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Targeted Medical Pharma Inc. Los Angeles, CA www.ptlcentral.com NDC: 68405-008-02 NDC: 68405-008-03

SPL UNCLASSIFIED SECTION.


Theramine (U.S. patent pending) capsules by oral administration. A specially formulated Medical Food product, consisting of a proprietary blend of amino acids and polyphenol ingredients in specific proportions, for the dietary management of the metabolic processes associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. (PD) (IC). Must be administered under physician supervision. Medical Foods Medical Food products are often used in hospitals (e.g., for burn victims or kidney dialysis patients) and outside of a hospital setting under a physicians care for the dietary management of diseases in patients with particular, unique or distinctive medical or metabolic needs due to their disease or condition. Congress defined "Medical Food" in the Orphan Drug Act and Amendments of 1988 as "a food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally [or orally] under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements, based on recognized scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation." Medical Foods are complex formulated products, requiring sophisticated and exacting technology, and that are used only for a patient receiving active and ongoing medical supervision wherein the patient requires medical care on a recurring basis for, among other things, instructions on the use of the Medical Food. Theramine has been developed, manufactured, and labeled in accordance with both the statutory definition of a Medical Food and FDAs regulatory labeling guidelines. Theramine must be used while the patient is under the ongoing care of a physician. PAIN DISORDERS (PD) INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS (IC) PD and IC as a Metabolic Deficiency Disease A critical component of the definition of a Medical Food is that the product must address the distinct nutritional requirements of a particular disease or condition. FDA scientists have proposed a physiologic definition of distinctive nutritional requirements as follows: the dietary management of patients with specific diseases requires, in some instances, the ability to meet nutritional requirements that differ substantially from the needs of healthy persons. For example, in establishing the recommended dietary allowances for general, healthy population, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences, recognized that different or distinctive physiologic requirements may exist for certain persons with "special nutritional needs arising from metabolic disorders, chronic diseases, injuries, premature birth, other medical conditions and drug therapies. Thus, the distinctive nutritional needs associated with a disease reflects the total amount needed by a healthy person to support life or maintain homeostasis, adjusted for the distinctive changes in the nutritional needs of the patient as a result of the effects of the disease process on absorption, metabolism and excretion. It was also proposed that in patients with certain disease states who respond to nutritional therapies, a physiologic deficiency of the nutrient is assumed to exist. For example, if a patient with a pain disorder responds to a tryptophan formulation by decreasing perceived pain, then a deficiency of tryptophan is assumed to exist. Patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions are known to have increased nutritional requirements for tryptophan, choline, arginine, GABA, flavonoids, and certain antioxidants. These nutritional requirements are such that they cannot be achieved by the modification of the normal diet alone, or by supplementing the diet. Patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions frequently exhibit reduced plasma levels of tryptophan and GABA, and have been shown to respond to oral administration of GABA, arginine, tryptophan, or a 5-hydroxytryptophan formulation. Research has shown that tryptophan, arginine or GABA reduced diets result in a fall of circulating tryptophan, arginine, and/or GABA. Patients with pain disorders frequently exhibit activation of the degradation pathways that increases the turnover rate of GABA, arginine and/or tryptophan leading to a reduced level of production of serotonin, GABA or nitric oxide for a given precursor blood level. Research has also shown that a genetic predisposition to accelerated degradation can lead to increased precursor requirements in certain patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Choline is required to fully potentiate acetylcholine synthesis by brain neurons. A deficiency of choline leads to reduced acetylcholine production by the neurons. Provision of tryptophan, arginine, GABA, choline and flavonoids with antioxidants, in specific proportions can restore the production of beneficial serotonin, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine, thereby reducing the perception of pain and reducing inflammation. L-Histidine is known to produce brain histamine that stimulates production of ACTH, producing cortisol to reduce inflammation.

DESCRIPTION SECTION.


PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Primary Ingredients Theramine consists of a proprietary formulation of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid, Choline Bitartrate, Whey Protein Hydrolysate, L-Arginine, L-Histidine, L-Glutamine, Theobromine, Griffonia See, Grape Seed, L-Serine, and Cinnamon in specific proportions. These ingredients fall into the classification of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) as defined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act). A GRAS substance is distinguished from a food additive on the basis of the common knowledge about the safety of the substance for its intended use. The standard for an ingredient to achieve GRAS status requires not only technical demonstration of non-toxicity and safety, but also general recognition of safety through widespread usage and agreement of that safety by experts in the field. Many ingredients have been determined by the FDA to be GRAS, and are listed as such by regulation, in Volume 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Sections 182, 184, and 186. Amino Acids Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein and are GRAS listed as they have been safely ingested by humans for thousands of years. The formulations of the amino acids in Theramine are equivalent to those found in the usual human diet. Patients with pain disorders may require an increased amount of certain amino acids that cannot be obtained from normal diet alone. Tryptophan, for example, is an obligatory amino acid. The body cannot make tryptophan and must obtain tryptophan from the diet. Tryptophan is needed to produce serotonin. Serotonin is required to reduce pain. Patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions have altered serotonin metabolism. Flavonoids Flavonoids are a group of phytochemical compounds found in all vascular plants including fruits and vegetables. They are a part of a larger class of compounds known as polyphenols. Many of the therapeutic or health benefits of colored fruits and vegetables, cocoa, red wine, and green tea are directly related to their flavonoid content. The specially formulated flavonoids found in Theramine cannot be obtained from conventional foods in the necessary proportions to elicit a therapeutic response. Other Ingredients Theramine contains the following inactive or other ingredients, as fillers, excipients, and colorings: Gelatin, Silicon Dioxide, Tricalcium Phosphate, Vegetable Magnesium stearate, Cellulose, FDandC Blue#1, FDandC Red #3, Titanium Dioxide. Physical Description Theramine is a yellow to light brown powder. Theramine contains Gamma Aminobutyric Acid, Choline Bitartrate, Whey Protein Hydrolysate, L-Arginine, L-Histidine HCL, L-Glutamine, Theobromine, Griffonia Seed, Grape Seed, L-Serine, and Cinnamon. Each capsule consists of a proprietary blend of these ingredients in an amount of 366mg or 732mg per two (2) capsule dose.

OVERDOSAGE SECTION.


OVERDOSE There is a negligible risk of overdose with Theramine as the total amount of amino acids in a one month supply (90 capsules) is less than 30 grams. Overdose symptoms may include diarrhea, weakness, and nausea. POST-MARKETING SURVEILLANCE Post-marketing surveillance has shown no serious adverse reactions. Reported cases of mild rash and itching may have been associated with allergies to Theramine flavonoid ingredients, including Cinnamon, Cocoa, and Grape Seed. These reactions were temporary, transient in nature and subsided within 24-hours.

PRECAUTIONS SECTION.


PRECAUTIONS General Naproxen-containing products such as Naproxen Tablets, USP, and other naproxen products should not be used concomitantly since they all circulate in the plasma as the naproxen anion. Naproxen Tablets, USP cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids and the patient should be observed closely for any evidence of adverse effects, including adrenal insufficiency and exacerbation of symptoms of arthritis. Patients with initial hemoglobin values of 10 g or less who are to receive a long-term therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically. The pharmacological activity of Naproxen Tablets, USP in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, noninflammatory painful conditions. Because of adverse eye findings in animal studies with drugs of this class, it is recommended that ophthalmic studies be carried out if any change or disturbance in vision occurs. Hepatic Effects Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including Naproxen Tablets, USP. Hepatic abnormalities may be the result of hypersensitivity rather than direct toxicity. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain essentially unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. The SGPT (ALT) test is probably the most sensitive indicator of liver dysfunction. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with Naproxen Tablets, USP. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), Naproxen Tablets, USP should be discontinued. Chronic alcoholic liver disease and probably other diseases with decreased or abnormal plasma proteins (albumin) reduce the total plasma concentration of naproxen, but the plasma concentration of unbound naproxen is increased. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in these patients. It is prudent to use the lowest effective dose. Hematological Effects Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including Naproxen Tablets, USP. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including Naproxen Tablets, USP, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving Naproxen Tablets, USP who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored. Preexisting Asthma Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, Naproxen Tablets, USP should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

PEDIATRIC USE SECTION.


Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years have not been established.

NURSING MOTHERS SECTION.


Nursing Mothers The naproxen anion has been found in the milk of lactating women at a concentration equivalent to approximately 1% of maximum naproxen concentration in plasma. Because of the possible adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates, use in nursing mothers should be avoided.

STORAGE AND HANDLING SECTION.


Storage Store in a cool dry place 45-90 F (8-32 C) relative humidity below 50%. Theramine is supplied in a recyclable plastic bottle with a child-resistant cap.

SPL MEDGUIDE SECTION.


MEDGUIDE Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) (See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.) What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases: - with longer use of NSAID medicines - in people who have heart disease NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding: - can happen without warning symptoms - may cause death The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with: - taking medicines called corticosteroids and anticoagulants - drinking alcohol - longer use - older age - smoking - having poor health NSAID medicines should only be used: - exactly as prescribed - for the shortest time needed - at the lowest dose possible for your treatment What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as: - different types of arthritis - menstrual cramps and other types of short-term pain Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)? Do not take an NSAID medicine: - if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAID medicine - for pain right before or after heart bypass surgery Tell your healthcare provider: - about all of your medical conditions. - about all of the medicines you take. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist. - if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy. - if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor. What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? Serious side effects include: Other side effects include: - heart attack - stomach pain - stroke - constipation - high blood pressure - diarrhea - heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention) - gas - kidney problems including kidney failure - heartburn - bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine - nausea - low red blood cells (anemia) - vomiting - life-threatening skin reactions - dizziness - life-threatening allergic reactions - liver problems including liver failure - asthma attacks in people who have asthma Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms: - shortness of breath or trouble breathing - slurred speech - chest pain - swelling of the face or throat - weakness in one part or side of your body Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms: - nausea - vomit blood - more tired or weaker than usual - there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar - itching - unusual weight gain - your skin or eyes look yellow - skin rash or blisters with fever - stomach pain - swelling of the arms and legs, hands and feet - flu-like symptoms These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) - Aspirin is an NSAID medicine but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines. - Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses without a prescription (overthe-counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days. NSAID medicines that need a prescription Generic Name Tradename Celecoxib Celebrex Diclofenac Cataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol) Diflunisal Dolobid Etodolac Lodine, Lodine XL Fenoprofen Nalfon, Nalfon 200 Flurbiprofen Ansaid Ibuprofen Motrin, Tab-Profen, Vicoprofen* (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone) Indomethacin Indocin, Indocin SR, Indo-Lemmon, Indomethagan Ketoprofen Oruvail Ketorolac Toradol Mefenamic Acid Ponstel Meloxicam Mobic Nabumetone Relafen Naproxen Naprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naprosyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole) Oxaprozin Daypro Piroxicam Feldene Sulindac Clinoril Tolmetin Tolectin, Tolectin DS, Tolectin 600 * Vicoprofen contains the same dose of ibuprofen as over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDs, and is usually used for less than 10 days to treat pain. The OTC NSAID label warns that long term continuous use may increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

OTHER SAFETY INFORMATION.


Other Information Concerning Drug Interactions Naproxen is highly bound to plasma albumin; it thus has a theoretical potential for interaction with other albumin-bound drugs such as coumarin-type anticoagulants, sulphonylureas, hydantoins, other NSAIDs, and aspirin. Patients simultaneously receiving naproxen and a hydantoin, sulphonamide or sulphonylurea should be observed for adjustment of dose if required. Naproxen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce the antihypertensive effect of propranolol and other beta-blockers. Probenecid given concurrently increases naproxen anion plasma levels and extends its plasma half-life significantly.

LABOR & DELIVERY SECTION.


Labor and Delivery In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. Naproxen-containing products are not recommended in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, naproxen may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage. The effects of Naproxen Tablets, USP on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

DRUG INTERACTIONS SECTION.


DRUG INTERACTIONS Theramine does not directly influence the pharmacokinetics of prescription drugs. Clinical experience has shown that administration of Theramine may allow for lowering the dose of co-administered drugs under physician supervision.

DRUG & OR LABORATORY TEST INTERACTIONS SECTION.


Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions Naproxen may decrease platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time. This effect should be kept in mind when bleeding times are determined. The administration of naproxen may result in increased urinary values for 17-ketogenic steroids because of an interaction between the drug and/or its metabolites with m-di-nitrobenzene used in this assay. Although 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid measurements (Porter-Silber test) do not appear to be artifactually altered, it is suggested that therapy with naproxen be temporarily discontinued 72 hours before adrenal function tests are performed if the Porter-Silber test is to be used. Naproxen may interfere with some urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA).

PHARMACOKINETICS SECTION.


Pharmacokinetics Naproxen is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with an in vivo bioavailability of 95%. The different dosage forms of naproxen are bioequivalent in terms of extent of absorption (AUC) and peak concentration (Cmax); however, the products do differ in their pattern of absorption. These differences between naproxen products are related to both the chemical form of naproxen used and its formulation. Even with the observed differences in pattern of absorption, the elimination half-life of naproxen is unchanged across products ranging from 12 to 17 hours. Steady-state levels of naproxen are reached in 4 to 5 days, and the degree of naproxen accumulation is consistent with this half-life. This suggests that the differences in pattern of release play only a negligible role in the attainment of steady-state plasma levels. Absorption Immediate Release After administration of Naproxen Tablets, USP, peak plasma levels are attained in 2 to 4 hours. Distribution Naproxen has a volume of distribution of 0.16 L/kg. At therapeutic levels naproxen is greater than 99% albumin bound. At doses of naproxen greater than 500 mg/day there is less than proportional increase in plasma levels due to an increase in clearance caused by saturation of plasma protein binding at higher doses (average trough Css 36.5, 49.2, and 56.4 mg/L with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg daily doses of naproxen, respectively). The naproxen anion has been found in milk of lactating women at a concentration equivalent to approximately 1% of maximum naproxen concentration in plasma (see PRECAUTIONS: Nursing Mothers). Metabolism Naproxen is extensively metabolized in the liver to 6-0-desmethyl naproxen, and both parent and metabolites do not induce metabolizing enzymes. Both naproxen and 6-0-desmethyl naproxen are further metabolized to their respective acylglucuronide conjugated metabolites. Excretion The clearance of naproxen is 0.13 mL/min/kg. Approximately 95% of the naproxen from any dose is excreted in the urine, primarily as naproxen (Less than 1%), 6-0-desmethyl naproxen (Less than 1%) or their conjugates (66% to 92%). The plasma half-life of the naproxen anion in humans ranges from 12 to 17 hours. The corresponding half-lives of both naproxens metabolites and conjugates are shorter than 12 hours, and their rates of excretion have been found to coincide closely with the rate of naproxen disappearance from the plasma. Small amounts, 3% or less of the administered dose, are excreted in the feces. In patients with renal failure metabolites may accumulate (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects). Special Populations Geriatric Patients Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly, although the unbound fraction is Less than 1% of the total naproxen concentration. Unbound trough naproxen concentrations in elderly subjects have been reported to range from 0.12% to 0.19% of total naproxen concentration, compared with 0.05% to 0.075% in younger subjects. The clinical significance of this finding is unclear, although it is possible that the increase in free naproxen concentration could be associated with an increase in the rate of adverse events per a given dosage in some elderly patients. Race Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been studied. Hepatic Insufficiency Naproxen pharmacokinetics has not been determined in subjects with hepatic insufficiency. Renal Insufficiency Naproxen pharmacokinetics has not been determined in subjects with renal insufficiency. Given that naproxen, its metabolites and conjugates are primarily excreted by the kidney, the potential exists for naproxen metabolites to accumulate in the presence of renal insufficiency. Elimination of naproxen is decreased in patients with severe renal impairment. Naproxen-containing products are not recommended for use in patients with moderate to severe and severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance Less than 30 mL/min) (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).

INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS SECTION.


Information for Patients Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed. 1. Naproxen Tablets, USP, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Effects). 2. Naproxen Tablets, USP, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Effects- Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation). 3. Naproxen Tablets, USP, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible. 4. Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians. 5. Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and flu-like symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy. 6. Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS). 7. In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Naproxen Tablets, USP should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. 8. Caution should be exercised by patients whose activities require alertness if they experience drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo or depression during therapy with naproxen.

CLINICAL STUDIES SECTION.


CLINICAL EXPERIENCE Administration of Theramine has demonstrated significant reduction in symptoms of pain and inflammation in patients with acute and chronic pain when used for the dietary management of the metabolic processes associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Administration of Theramine results in the induction and maintenance of pain relief in patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions.

LABORATORY TESTS SECTION.


Laboratory Tests Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, Naproxen Tablets, USP should be discontinued.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION.


CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Mechanism of Action Theramine acts by restoring and maintaining the balance of the neurotransmitters GABA, nitric oxide, serotonin, and acetylcholine that are associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Theramine stimulates the production ACTH to reduce inflammation. Metabolism The amino acids in Theramine are primarily absorbed by the stomach and small intestines. All cells metabolize the amino acids in Theramine. Circulating tryptophan, arginine and choline blood levels determine the production of serotonin, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine. Excretion Theramine is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4. These isoenzymes are principally responsible for 95% of all detoxification of drugs, with CYP3A4 being responsible for detoxification of roughly 50% of drugs. Amino acids do not appear to have an effect on drug metabolizing enzymes.

CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION.


PRECAUTIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS Theramine is contraindicated in an extremely small number of patients with hypersensitivity to any of the nutritional components of Theramine.

WARNINGS SECTION.


WARNINGS CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur. There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation). Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Hypertension NSAIDs, including Naproxen Tablets, USP, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including Naproxen Tablets, USP, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy. Congestive Heart Failure and Edema Fluid retention, edema, and peripheral edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Naproxen Tablets, USP should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention, hypertension, or heart failure. Gastrointestinal Effects- Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation NSAIDs, including Naproxen Tablets, USP, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. The utility of periodic laboratory monitoring has not been demonstrated, nor has it been adequately assessed. Only 1 in 5 patients who develop a serious GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered. Renal Effects Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver disfunction, salt depletion, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state (see WARNINGS: Advanced Renal Disease). Advanced Renal Disease No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of Naproxen Tablets, USP in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with Naproxen Tablets, USP is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If Naproxen Tablets, USP therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patients renal function is advisable. Anaphylactoid Reactions As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to Naproxen Tablets, USP. Naproxen Tablets, USP should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs. Skin Reactions NSAIDs, including Naproxen Tablets, USP, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Pregnancy In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Naproxen Tablets, USP should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.