DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Recommended Administration For the dietary management of the metabolic processes associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Take (2) capsules one to three times daily or as directed by physician. As with most amino acid formulations Theramine should be taken without food to increase the absorption of key ingredients.
HOW SUPPLIED SECTION.
How Supplied Theramine is supplied in purple and white, size 0 capsules in bottles of 60 or 90 capsules. Physician Supervision Theramine is a Medical Food product available by prescription only and must be used while the patient is under ongoing physician supervision. U.S. patent pending. Manufactured by Arizona Nutritional Supplements, Inc. Chandler AZ 85225 Distributed by Physician Therapeutics LLC, Los Angeles, CA 90077. www.ptlcentral.com Copyright 2003-2006, Physician Therapeutics LLC, all rights reserved NDC: 68405-1008-02 NDC: 68405-1008-03
SPL UNCLASSIFIED SECTION.
Theramine PRODUCT INFORMATION Theramine (U.S. patent pending) capsules by oral administration. A specially formulated Medical Food product, consisting of a proprietary blend of amino acids and polyphenol ingredients in specific proportions, for the dietary management of the metabolic processes associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. (PD) (IC). Must be administered under physician supervision. Medical Foods Medical Food products are often used in hospitals (e.g., for burn victims or kidney dialysis patients) and outside of a hospital setting under a physicians care for the dietary management of diseases in patients with particular medical or metabolic needs due to their disease or condition. Congress defined "Medical Food" in the Orphan Drug Act and Amendments of 1988 as "a food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally [or orally] under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements, based on recognized scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation." Medical Foods are complex formulated products, requiring sophisticated and exacting technology. Theramine has been developed, manufactured, and labeled in accordance with both the statutory and the FDA regulatory definition of a Medical Food. Theramine must be used while the patient is under the ongoing care of a physician. PAIN DISORDERS (PD) INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS (IC) PD and IC as a Metabolic Deficiency Disease A critical component of the definition of a Medical Food is the requirement for a distinctive nutritional deficiency. FDA scientists have proposed a physiologic definition of a distinctive nutritional deficiency as follows: the dietary management of patients with specific diseases requires, in some instances, the ability to meet nutritional requirements that differ substantially from the needs of healthy persons. For example, in establishing the recommended dietary allowances for general, healthy population, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences, recognized that different or distinctive physiologic requirements may exist for certain persons with "special nutritional needs arising from metabolic disorders, chronic diseases, injuries, premature birth, other medical conditions and drug therapies. Thus, the distinctive nutritional needs associated with a disease reflects the total amount needed by a healthy person to support life or maintain homeostasis, adjusted for the distinctive changes in the nutritional needs of the patient as a result of the effects of the disease process on absorption, metabolism and excretion. It was also proposed that in patients with certain disease states who respond to nutritional therapies, a physiologic deficiency of the nutrient is assumed to exist. For example, if a patient with pain disorders responds to a tryptophan formulation by decreasing perceived pain, a deficiency of tryptophan is assumed to exist. Patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions are known to have nutritional deficiencies of tryptophan, choline, arginine, GABA, flavonoids, and certain antioxidants. Patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions frequently exhibit reduced plasma levels of tryptophan and GABA and have been shown to respond to oral administration of GABA, arginine, tryptophan, or a 5-hydoxytryptophan formulation. Research has shown that tryptophan, arginine or GABA reduced diets result in a fall of circulating tryptophan, arginine, and/or GABA. Patients with pain disorders frequently exhibit activation of the degradation pathways that increases the turnover of GABA, arginine and/or tryptophan leading to a reduced level of production of serotonin, GABA or nitric oxide for a given precursor blood level. Research has also shown that a genetic predisposition to accelerated degradation can lead to increased precursor requirements in certain patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Choline is required to fully potentiate acetylcholine synthesis by brain neurons. A deficiency of choline leads to reduced acetylcholine production by the neurons. Flavonoids potentiate the production of acetylcholine by the neurons thereby reducing delta pain. Diets deficient in flavonoid rich foods and choline result in inadequate flavonoid concentrations, impeding acetylcholine production in certain patients with pain disorders and/or inflammatory conditions. Acetylcholine in pre-synaptic ganglia is necessary for the production of serotonin and nitric oxide in post-synaptic ganglia. Provision of tryptophan, arginine, GABA, choline and flavonoids with antioxidants, in specific proportions can restore the production of beneficial serotonin, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine, thereby reducing the perception of pain and reducing inflammation. L-Histidine is known to produce brain histamine that stimulates production of ACTH.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Primary Ingredients Theramine consists of a proprietary blend of amino acids, cocoa, caffeine, cinnamon, and flavonoids in specific proportions. These ingredients fall into the category of Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) as defined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Sections 201(s) and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act). A GRAS substance is distinguished from a food additive on the basis of the common knowledge about the safety of the substance for its intended use. The standard for an ingredient to achieve GRAS status requires not only technical demonstration of non-toxicity and safety, but also general recognition of safety through widespread usage and agreement of that safety by experts in the field. Many ingredients have been determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be GRAS, and are listed as such by regulation, in Volume 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Sections 182, 184, and 186. Amino Acids Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein. All amino acids are GRAS listed as they have been ingested by humans for thousands of years. The doses of the amino acids in Theramine are equivalent to those found in the usual human diet. Patients with pain disorders may require an increased amount of certain amino acids that cannot be obtained from normal diet alone. Tryptophan, for example, is an obligatory amino acid. The body cannot make tryptophan and must obtain tryptophan from the diet. Tryptophan is needed to produce serotonin. Serotonin is required to reduce pain. Patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions have altered serotonin metabolism. Some patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions have a resistance to the use of tryptophan that is similar to the mechanism found in insulin resistance. Patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions cannot acquire sufficient tryptophan from the diet to alter the perception of pain and the inflammatory process without ingesting a prohibitively large amount of calories, particularly calories from protein. Flavonoids Flavonoids are a group of phytochemical compounds found in all vascular plants including fruits and vegetables. They are a part of a larger class of compounds known as polyphenols. Many of the therapeutic or health benefits of colored fruits and vegetables, cocoa, red wine, and green tea are directly related to their flavonoid content. The specially formulated flavonoids found in Theramine cannot be obtained from conventional foods in the necessary proportions to elicit a therapeutic response. Other Ingredients Theramine contains the following inactive or other ingredients, as fillers, excipients, and colorings: magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, Maltodextrin NF, gelatin (as the capsule material). Physical Description Theramine is a yellow to light brown powder. Theramine contains L-Glutamine, L-Arginine, L-Histidine, and L-Serine, 5-Hydroxytryptophan as Griffonia Seed Extract, GABA, Choline Bitartrate, Cinnamon, Cocoa, Hydrolyzed Whey Protein, and Grape Seed Extract.
OVERDOSE There is a negligible risk of overdose with Theramine as the total dosage of amino acids in a one month supply (90 capsules) is less than 36 grams. Overdose symptoms may include diarrhea, weakness, and nausea. POST-MARKETING SURVEILLANCE Post-marketing surveillance has shown no serious adverse reactions. Reported cases of mild rash and itching may have been associated with allergies to Theramine flavonoid ingredients, including cinnamon, cocoa, and chocolate. These reactions were transient in nature and subsided within 24 hours.
GERIATRIC USE SECTION.
Geriatric Use As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older). Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events with NSAIDs are in the elderly or debilitated patients and, therefore, care should be taken in treating this population. In addition to a past history of ulcer disease, older age and poor general health status (among other factors) may increase the risk for GI bleeding. To minimize the potential risk of an adverse GI event, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation). As with all other NSAIDs, there is a risk of developing renal toxicity in patients in which renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in maintenance of renal perfusion. Discontinuation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state (see Warnings: Renal Effects). In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting a greater frequency of impaired drug elimination and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
BOXED WARNING SECTION.
For Oral Use Cardiovascular Risk NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see WARNINGS). Piroxicam is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS). Gastrointestinal Risk NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).
Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Piroxicam is not recommended for use in pregnant women since safety has not been established in humans. Piroxicam should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided. In animal studies of Piroxicam, gastrointestinal tract toxicity was increased in pregnant females in the last trimester of pregnancy compared to nonpregnant females or females in earlier trimesters of pregnancy.
ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION.
ADVERSE REACTIONS Oral supplementation with L-tryptophan, L-arginine or choline at high doses up to 15 grams daily is generally well tolerated. The most common adverse reactions of higher doses from 15 to 30 grams daily are nausea, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Some patients may experience these symptoms at lower doses. The total combined amount of amino acids in each Theramine capsule does not exceed 400 mg.
INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION.
INDICATIONS FOR USE Theramine is intended for the clinical dietary management of the metabolic processes of pain disorders and inflammatory conditions.
CARCINOGENESIS & MUTAGENESIS & IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY SECTION.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Subacute, acute, and chronic toxicity studies have been carried out in rats, mice, dogs, and monkeys. The pathology most often seen was that characteristically associated with the animal toxicology of anti-inflammatory agents: renal papillary necrosis (see PRECAUTIONS) and gastrointestinal lesions. Reproductive studies revealed no impairment of fertility in animals.
PRECAUTIONS General Piroxicam cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids. The pharmacological activity of Piroxicam in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions. Hepatic Effects Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs, including Piroxicam. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with Piroxicam. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), Piroxicam should be discontinued (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Hematological Effects Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including Piroxicam. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including Piroxicam, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving Piroxicam who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored. Ophthalmologic Effects Because of reports of adverse eye findings with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, it is recommended that patients who develop visual complaints during treatment with Piroxicam have ophthalmic evaluations. Preexisting Asthma Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross-reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, Piroxicam should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.
PEDIATRIC USE SECTION.
Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
NURSING MOTHERS SECTION.
Nursing Mothers Piroxicam is excreted into human milk. The presence in breast milk has been determined during initial and long-term conditions (52 days). Piroxicam appeared in breast milk at about 1% to 3% of the maternal concentration. No accumulation of piroxicam occurred in milk relative to that in plasma during treatment. Piroxicam is not recommended for use in nursing mothers.
STORAGE AND HANDLING SECTION.
Storage Store at room temperature, 59-86OF (15-30OC) Protect from light and moisture. Theramine is supplied to physicians in a recyclable plastic bottle with a child-resistant cap.
SPL MEDGUIDE SECTION.
MEDICATION GUIDE FOR NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) (See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.) What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases: with longer use of NSAID medicines in people who have heart disease NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a "coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)." NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding: can happen without warning symptoms may cause death The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with: taking medicines called "corticosteroids" and "anticoagulants" longer use smoking drinking alcohol older age having poor health NSAID medicines should only be used: exactly as prescribed at the lowest dose possible for your treatment for the shortest time needed What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as: different types of arthritis menstrual cramps and other types of short-term painWho should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)? Do not take an NSAID medicine: if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAID medicine for pain right before or after heart bypass surgery Tell your healthcare provider: about all of your medical conditions. about all of the medicines you take. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist. if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy. if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor.What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? Serious side effects include: heart attack stroke high blood pressure heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention) kidney problems including kidney failure bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine low red blood cells (anemia) life-threatening skin reactions life-threatening allergic reactions liver problems including liver failure asthma attacks in people who have asthma Other side effects include: stomach pain constipation diarrhea gas heartburn nausea vomiting dizzinessGet emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms: shortness of breath or trouble breathing chest pain weakness in one part or side of your body slurred speech swelling of the face or throatStop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms: nausea more tired or weaker than usual itching your skin or eyes look yellow stomach pain flu-like symptoms vomit blood there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar unusual weight gain skin rash or blisters with fever swelling of the arms and legs, hands and feet These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Aspirin is an NSAID medicine but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines. Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over the counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over the counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days. NSAID medicines that need a prescription Generic Name Tradename Celecoxib Celebrex Diclofenac Cataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol) Diflunisal Dolobid Etodolac Lodine, Lodine XL Fenoprofen Nalfon, Nalfon 200 Flurbiprofen Ansaid Ibuprofen Motrin, Tab-Profen, Vicoprofen* (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone) Indomethacin Indocin, Indocin SR, Indo-Lemmon, Indomethagan Ketoprofen Oruvail Ketorolac Toradol Mefenamic Acid Ponstel Meloxicam Mobic Nabumetone Relafen Naproxen Naprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naproxyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole) Oxaprozin Daypro Piroxicam Piroxicam Sulindac Clinoril Tolmetin Tolectin, Tolectin DS, Tolectin 600 *Vicoprofen contains the same dose of ibuprofen as over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDs, and is usually used for less than 10 days to treat pain. The OTC NSAID label warns that long term continuous use may increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
LABOR & DELIVERY SECTION.
Labor and Delivery In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of Piroxicam on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.
DRUG INTERACTIONS SECTION.
DRUG INTERACTIONS Theramine does not directly influence the pharmacokinetics of prescription drugs. Clinical experience has shown that administration of Theramine may allow for lowering the dose of co-administered drugs under physician supervision.
Pharmacokinetics Absorption Piroxicam is well absorbed following oral administration. Drug plasma concentrations are proportional for 10 and 20 mg doses and generally peak within three to five hours after medication. The prolonged half-life (50 hours) results in the maintenance of relatively stable plasma concentrations throughout the day on once daily doses and to significant accumulation upon multiple dosing. A single 20 mg dose generally produces peak piroxicam plasma levels of 1.5 to 2 mcg/mL, while maximum drug plasma concentrations, after repeated daily ingestion of 20 mg Piroxicam, usually stabilize at 38 mcg/mL. Most patients approximate steady state plasma levels within 712 days. Higher levels, which approximate steady state at two to three weeks, have been observed in patients in whom longer plasma half-lives of piroxicam occurred. With food there is a slight delay in the rate but not the extent of absorption following oral administration. The concomitant administration of antacids (aluminum hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide with magnesium hydroxide) have been shown to have no effect on the plasma levels of orally administered piroxicam. Distribution The apparent volume of distribution of piroxicam is approximately 0.14 L/kg. Ninety-nine percent of plasma piroxicam is bound to plasma proteins. Piroxicam is excreted into human milk. The presence in breast milk has been determined during initial and longterm conditions (52 days). Piroxicam appeared in breast milk at about 1% to 3% of the maternal concentration. No accumulation of piroxicam occurred in milk relative to that in plasma during treatment. Metabolism Metabolism of piroxicam occurs by hydroxylation at the 5 position of the pyridyl side chain and conjugation of this product; by cyclodehydration; and by a sequence of reactions involving hydrolysis of the amide linkage, decarboxylation, ring contraction, and N-demethylation. In vitro studies indicate cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) as the main enzyme involved in the formation to the 5'-hydroxy-piroxicam, the major metabolite (see Pharmacogenetics, and Special Populations, Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates). The biotransformation products of piroxicam metabolism are reported to not have any anti-inflammatory activity. Higher systemic exposure of piroxicam has been noted in subjects with CYP2C9 polymorphisms compared to normal metabolizer type subjects (see Pharmacogenetics, and Special Populations, Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates).Excretion Piroxicam and its biotransformation products are excreted in urine and feces, with about twice as much appearing in the urine as in the feces. Approximately 5% of a Piroxicam dose is excreted unchanged. The plasma half-life (T) for piroxicam is approximately 50 hours. Pharmacogenetics CYP2C9 activity is reduced in individuals with genetic polymorphisms, such as the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms. Limited data from one published report that included nine subjects each with heterozygous CYP2C9*1/*2 and CYP2C9*1/*3 genotypes and one subject with the homozygous CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype showed piroxicam systemic levels that were 1.7-, 1.7- and 5.3-fold, respectively, higher compared to the 17 subjects with CYP2C9*1/*1 or normal metabolizer genotype. The pharmacokinetics of piroxicam have not been evaluated in subjects with other CYP2C9 polymorphisms, such as *5, *6, *9 and *11. It is estimated that the frequency of the homozygous *3/*3 genotype is 0.3% to 1.0% in various ethnic groups. Special Populations Pediatric Piroxicam has not been investigated in pediatric patients. Race Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been identified. Hepatic Insufficiency The effects of hepatic disease on Piroxicam pharmacokinetics have not been established. However, a substantial portion of Piroxicam elimination occurs by hepatic metabolism. Consequently, patients with hepatic disease may require reduced doses of Piroxicam as compared to patients with normal hepatic function. Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates Patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers based on genotype or previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates (such as warfarin and phenytoin) should be administered piroxicam with caution as they may have abnormally high plasma levels due to reduced metabolic clearance. Renal Insufficiency Piroxicam pharmacokinetics have been investigated in patients with renal insufficiency. Studies indicate patients with mild to moderate renal impairment may not require dosing adjustments. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of Piroxicam in patients with severe renal insufficiency or those receiving hemodialysis are not known. Other Information In controlled clinical trials, the effectiveness of Piroxicam has been established for both acute exacerbations and long-term management of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The therapeutic effects of Piroxicam are evident early in the treatment of both diseases with a progressive increase in response over several (812) weeks. Efficacy is seen in terms of pain relief and, when present, subsidence of inflammation. Doses of 20 mg/day Piroxicam display a therapeutic effect comparable to therapeutic doses of aspirin, with a lower incidence of minor gastrointestinal effects and tinnitus. Piroxicam has been administered concomitantly with fixed doses of gold and corticosteroids. The existence of a "steroid-sparing" effect has not been adequately studied to date.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Pharmacodynamics Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models. The mechanism of action of Piroxicam, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS SECTION.
Information for Patients Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Piroxicam, like other NSAIDs, may cause CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS). Piroxicam, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation). Piroxicam, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS and TEN, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible. Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians. Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy. Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS). In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Piroxicam should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
LABORATORY TESTS SECTION.
Laboratory Tests Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs and symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, Piroxicam should be discontinued.
CLINICAL STUDIES SECTION.
CLINICAL EXPERIENCE Administration of Theramine has demonstrated significant reduction in symptoms of pain and inflammation in patients with acute and chronic pain when used for the dietary management of the metabolic processes associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Administration of Theramine results in the induction and maintenance of pain relief in patients with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Mechanism of Action Theramine acts by restoring and maintaining the balance of the neurotransmitters; GABA, nitric oxide, serotonin, and acetylcholine that are associated with pain disorders and inflammatory conditions. Theramine stimulates the production ACTH to reduce inflammation. Metabolism The amino acids in Theramine are primarily absorbed by the stomach and small intestines. All cells metabolize the amino acids in Theramine. Circulating tryptophan, arginine and choline blood levels determine the production of serotonin, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine. Excretion Theramine is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4. These isoenzymes are principally responsible for 95% of all detoxification of drugs, with CYP3A4 being responsible for detoxification of roughly 50% of drugs. Amino acids do not appear to have an effect on drug metabolizing enzymes.
PRECAUTIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS Theramine is contraindicated in an extremely small number of patients with hypersensitivity to any of the nutritional components of Theramine.
WARNINGS CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur. There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation). Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 1014 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Hypertension NSAIDs, including Piroxicam, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including Piroxicam, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy. Congestive Heart Failure and Edema Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Piroxicam should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure. Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation NSAIDs, including Piroxicam, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 36 months, and in about 24% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and, therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulcerations and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high-risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered. Renal Effects Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE-inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state. Advanced Renal Disease No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of Piroxicam in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with Piroxicam is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If Piroxicam therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable. Anaphylactoid Reactions As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to Piroxicam. Piroxicam should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs. Skin Reactions NSAIDs, including Piroxicam, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Other Hypersensitivity Reactions A combination of dermatological and/or allergic signs and symptoms suggestive of serum sickness have occasionally occurred in conjunction with the use of Piroxicam. These include arthralgias, pruritus, fever, fatigue, and rash including vesiculobullous reactions and exfoliative dermatitis. Pregnancy In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Piroxicam should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.