Results: 100

oleic acid An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
ornithine An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
podophyllotoxin A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.
quercetin A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
rapacuronium a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with a rapid onset of action acts by competing for cholinergic receptors at the motor end plate
resorcinol an antiseptic and disinfectant used for temporary relief of itching
ricinoleic acid
rutoside A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
sodium tetradecyl sulfate An anionic surface-active agent used for its wetting properties in industry and used in medicine as an irritant and sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids and varicose veins.
oxedrine Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
tetryzoline used as nasal decongestant; Visine is a form of eye drops; RN given refers to parent cpd; structure
vincamine A major alkaloid of Vinca minor L., Apocynaceae. It has been used therapeutically as a vasodilator and antihypertensive agent, particularly in cerebrovascular disorders.
yohimbine A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
androstanolone A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
guanabenz An alpha-2 selective adrenergic agonist used as an antihypertensive agent.
porfimer The purified component of HEMATOPORPHYRIN DERIVATIVE, it consists of a mixture of oligomeric porphyrins. It is used in photodynamic therapy (HEMATOPORPHYRIN PHOTORADIATION); to treat malignant lesions with visible light and experimentally as an antiviral agent. It is the first drug to be approved in the use of PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY in the United States.
razoxane An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.
auranofin An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.
gentian violet A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
mequinol depigmenting agent; RN given refers to parent cpd
sodium monofluorophosphate inhibits Phosphorylas phosphatase irreversibly; RN given refers to parent cpd
piperonyl butoxide An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
gentamicin A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
polyvinyl alcohol A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
magnesium citrate
copper sulfate A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.
magnesium carbonate
almasilate antacid containing Al-H3-O3.Mg2-O8-Si3
aurothioglucose A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.
ammonium chloride An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
chenodiol A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
teceleukin a recombinant IL-2 product having a methionine added at the N-terminal.
calcium glucoheptonate
calcium glycerylphosphate Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
aluminium chloride A compound with the chemical formula AlCl3; the anhydrous salt is used as a catalyst in organic chemical synthesis, and hydrated salts are used topically as antiperspirants, and for the management of HYPERHYDROSIS.
ferric oxide A glucaric acid-iron conjugate that is used in the treatment of IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA, including in patients with chronic kidney disease, when oral iron therapy is ineffective or impractical.
carbamide peroxide A urea peroxide compound that is commonly used in tooth whitening agents; topical anti-infective agents, and earwax remover.
oxomemazine selective for M1 muscarinic receptors
iron pentacarbonyl
ammonium lactate
diflorasone diacetate topical corticosteroid has anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and vasoconstrictive actions
zileuton an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid
alclometasone dipropionate
racepinefrine A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.
teprenone ; RN given refers to isomeric cpd without isomeric designation; mixture of (5E,9E,13E) & (5Z,9E,13E)-isomers
potassium hydrogencarbonate Approved by EMA in combination with potassium citrate.
flumetasone An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used in veterinary practice.
tonzonium a surfactant with antifungal activity; also inhibits osteoclast formation
clocortolone pivalate topical, anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid; structure
phenylacetic acid
ammonia A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
fluorometholone acetate
choline magnesium trisalicylate
benzoic acid A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
brilliant green
vorapaxar Vorapaxar is a reversible antagonist of the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expressed on platelets, but its long half-life makes it effectively irreversible. Vorapaxar inhibits thrombin-induced and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP)-induced platelet aggregation in vitro studies. Vorapaxar does not inhibit platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen or a thromboxane mimetic and does not affect coagulation parameters ex vivo. PAR-1 receptors are also expressed in a wide variety of cell types, including endothelial cells, neurons, and smooth muscle cells, but the pharmacodynamic effects of vorapaxar in these cell types have not been assessed.
ferric maltol potential use as an oral therapy for iron deficiency anemia
etanercept A recombinant version of soluble human TNF receptor fused to an IgG FC fragment that binds specifically to TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR and inhibits its binding with endogenous TNF receptors. It prevents the inflammatory effect of TNF and is used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS and ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS.
ibrexafungerp Ibrexafungerp, a triterpenoid antifungal agent, inhibits glucan synthase, an enzyme involved in the formation of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. Ibrexafungerp has concentration-dependent fungicidal activity against Candida species as measured by time kill studies. Ibrexafungerp retains in vitro antifungal activity when tested at pH 4.5 (the normal vaginal pH).
bremelanotide Bremelanotide is a melanocortin receptor (MCR) agonist that nonselectively activates several receptor subtypes with the following order of potency: MC1R, MC4R, MC3R, MC5R, MC2R. The mechanism by which VYLEESI improves HSDD in women is unknown. The MC1R is expressed on melanocytes; binding at this receptor leads to melanin expression and increased pigmentation
volanesorsen Volanesorsen is an antisense oligonucleotide designed to inhibit the formation of apoC-III, a protein that is recognised to regulate both triglyceride metabolism and hepatic clearance of chylomicrons and other triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The selective binding of volanesorsen to the apoC-III messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) within the 3′ untranslated region at base position 489-508 causes the degradation of the mRNA. This binding prevents translation of the protein apoC-III, thus removing an inhibitor of triglyceride clearance and enabling metabolism through an LPL-independent pathway
ropeginterferon alfa-2b Ropeginterferon alfa-2b is a recombinant interferon alfa-2b conjugated with a two-arm methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG). It belongs to the class of type I interferons which exhibit their cellular effects by binding to a transmembrane receptor termed interferon alfa receptor (IFNAR). Binding to IFNAR initiates a downstream signalling cascade through the activation of kinases, in particular Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Nuclear translocation of STAT proteins controls distinct gene-expression programs and exhibit various cellular effects. Interferon alfa was shown to have an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of hematopoietic and bone marrow fibroblast progenitor cells and antagonised the action of growth factors and other cytokines that have a role in the development of myelofibrosis. These actions may be involved in the therapeutic effects of interferon alfa in polycythaemia vera.Further, it was demonstrated that interferon alfa is able to decrease the mutated JAK2V617F allele burden in patients with polycythaemia vera (a V617F point mutation in the JAK2 kinase is a hallmark of polycythaemia vera and is present in approximately 95% of patients)
tenapanor IBSRELA (tenapanor) tablets contain tenapanor hydrochloride as an active ingredient. Tenapanor hydrochloride is a sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) inhibitor for oral use, an antiporter expressed on the apical surface of the small intestine and colon primarily responsible for the absorption of dietary sodium. In vitro and animal studies indicate its major metabolite, M1, is not active against NHE3. By inhibiting NHE3 on the apical surface of the enterocytes, tenapanor reduces absorption of sodium from the small intestine and colon, resulting in an increase in water secretion into the intestinal lumen, which accelerates intestinal transit time and results in a softer stool consistency.
cepharanthine The mechanism of action of cepharanthine is multifactorial. The drug exerts membrane effects (modulation of efflux pumps, membrane rigidification) as well as different intracellular and nuclear effects. Cepharanthine interferes with several metabolic axes, primarily with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and NFkappaB signaling pathways. In particular, the anti-inflammatory effects of cepharanthine rely on AMPK activation and NFkappaB inhibition.
inebilizumab Inebilizumab-cdon is a CD19-directed humanized afucosylated IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell suspension culture. The precise mechanism by which inebilizumab-cdon exerts its therapeutic effects in NMOSD is unknown but is presumed to involve binding to CD19, a cell surface antigen presents on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. Following cell surface binding to B lymphocytes, inebilizumab-cdon results in antibody-dependent cellular cytolysis (ADCC).
fostemsavir Fostemsavir is a prodrug without significant biochemical or antiviral activity that is hydrolyzed to the active moiety, temsavir, which is an HIV-1 attachment inhibitor. Temsavir binds directly to the gp120 subunit within the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 and selectively inhibits the interaction between the virus and cellular CD4 receptors, thereby preventing attachment. Additionally, temsavir can inhibit gp120-dependent post-attachment steps required for viral entry into host cells.
oliceridine Oliceridine is a full opioid agonist and is relatively selective for the mu-opioid receptor. The principal therapeutic action of oliceridine is analgesia. Like all full opioid agonists, there is no ceiling effect to analgesia for oliceridine. Clinically, dosage is titrated to provide adequate analgesia and may be limited by adverse reactions, including respiratory, and CNS depression. The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are thought to play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.
somapacitan Somapacitan-beco is a human growth hormone (hGH) analog. It binds to a dimeric GH receptor in the cell membrane of target cells resulting in intracellular signal transduction and a host of pharmacodynamic effects. Some of these pharmacodynamic effects are primarily mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) produced in the liver, while others are primarily a consequence of the direct effects of somapacitan-beco.
lonafarnib Lonafarnib inhibits farnesyltransferase to prevent farnesylation and subsequent accumulation of progerin and progerin-like proteins in the inner nuclear membrane.
imlifidase Imlifidase is a cysteine protease derived from the immunoglobulin G (IgG)-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes that cleaves the heavy chains of all human IgG subclasses but no other immunoglobulins. The cleavage of IgG leads to elimination of Fc-dependent effector functions, including CDC and antibody- dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). By cleaving all IgG, imlifidase reduces the level of DSA, thus enabling transplantation.
filgotinib Filgotinib is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive and reversible inhibitor of the JAK family. JAKs are intracellular enzymes which transmit signals arising from cytokine or growth factor-receptor interactions on the cellular membrane. JAK1 is important in mediating inflammatory cytokine signals, JAK2 in mediating myelopoiesis and erythropoiesis and JAK3 plays critical roles in immune homeostasis and lymphopoiesis. Within the signalling pathway, JAKs phosphorylate and activate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) which modulate intracellular activity including gene expression. Filgotinib modulates these signalling pathways by preventing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs.
finerenone Finerenone is a nonsteroidal, selective antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which is activated by aldosterone and cortisol and regulates gene transcription. Finerenone blocks MR mediated sodium reabsorption and MR overactivation in both epithelial (e.g., kidney) and nonepithelial (e.g., heart, and blood vessels) tissues. MR overactivation is thought to contribute to fibrosis and inflammation. Finerenone has a high potency and selectivity for the MR and has no relevant affinity for androgen, progesterone, estrogen, and glucocorticoid receptors.
vericiguat Vericiguat is a stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), an important enzyme in the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. When NO binds to sGC, the enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger that plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone, cardiac contractility, and cardiac remodeling. Heart failure is associated with impaired synthesis of NO and decreased activity of sGC, which may contribute to myocardial and vascular dysfunction. By directly stimulating sGC, independently of and synergistically with NO, vericiguat augments levels of intracellular cGMP, leading to smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation.
ponesimod Ponesimod is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 modulator that binds with high affinity to S1P receptor 1. Ponesimod blocks the capacity of lymphocytes to egress from lymph nodes, reducing the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The mechanism by which ponesimod exerts therapeutic effects in multiple sclerosis is unknown, but may involve reduction of lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system
dasiglucagon Dasiglucagon is a glucagon receptor agonist, which increases blood glucose concentration by activating hepatic glucagon receptors, thereby stimulating glycogen breakdown and release of glucose from the liver. Hepatic stores of glycogen are necessary for dasiglucagon to produce an antihypoglycemic effect.
estetrol Estetrol is a synthetic analogue of a native estrogen present during pregnancy, that is selective for nuclear estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta. It is used in combination with drospirenone, a spironolactone analogue with anti-mineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity, (nextstellis) as oral contraceptive.
pegcetacoplan Pegcetacoplan binds to complement protein C3 and its activation fragment C3b, thereby regulating the cleavage of C3 and the generation of downstream effectors of complement activation. In PNH, extravascular hemolysis (EVH) is facilitated by C3b opsonization while intravascular hemolysis (IVH) is mediated by the downstream membrane attack complex (MAC). Pegcetacoplan acts proximally in the complement cascade controlling both C3b-mediated EVH and terminal complement-mediated IVH.
insulin beef
fexinidazole Studies with Trypanosoma brucei and other protozoans suggest that, like for other nitrocontaining drugs, the nitroreductase (NTR) enzyme plays an important role in the bioactivation of fexinidazole resulting in generation of reactive amines and damage to DNA and proteins. The activity of fexinidazole and its metabolites (M1 and M2) is trypanocidal and appears to be concentration and time dependent. However, the precise mechanism by which fexinidazole and the two metabolites exhibit activity against T. brucei is not known.
lonapegsomatropin Lonapegsomatropin is a pegylated human growth hormone (somatropin) for once-weekly subcutaneous injection. Somatropin binds to the growth hormone (GH) receptor in the cell membrane of target cells resulting in intracellular signal transduction and a host of pharmacodynamic effects. Somatropin has direct tissue and metabolic effects, and indirect effects mediated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), including stimulation of chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation, stimulation of hepatic glucose output, protein synthesis and lipolysis. Somatropin stimulates skeletal growth in pediatric patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) as a result of effects on the growth plates (epiphyses) of long bones.
bimekizumab Bimekizumab is a humanised IgG1/kappa monoclonal antibody that selectively binds with high affinity to IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17AF cytokines, blocking their interaction with the IL-17RA/IL-17RC receptor complex. Elevated concentrations of IL-17A and IL-17F have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases including plaque psoriasis. Bimekizumab inhibits these proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in the normalization of skin inflammation and as a consequence improvement in clinical symptoms associated with psoriasis. From in vitro models, bimekizumab was shown to inhibit psoriasis-related gene expression and cytokine production to a greater extent than inhibition of IL-17A alone.
peficitinib Peficitinib inhibits the signal transduction of cytokines important for the pathological condition of RA as it inhibits the kinase activity of the JAK family (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2) and their signal transduction mediated by IL-2.
daridorexant The mechanism of action of daridorexant in the treatment of insomnia is presumed to be through antagonism of orexin receptors. The orexin neuropeptide signaling system plays a role in wakefulness. Blocking the binding of wake-promoting neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B to receptors OX1R and OX2R is thought to suppress wake drive.
insulin pork a neutral, buffered solution of pork insulin
isoxepac Non-steroidal arylacetic acid derivative anti-inflammatory with analgesic and antipyretic activity

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